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Colonel G. A. Jacob, 


Author of " Concordance to the Principal Upanishads, " " Manual 
of Hindu Pantheism," &c., &c. 






[All rights reserved by the Publisher.] 

Registered under the Act XXV of 1867. 


The issue, in Benares seven years ago, of an edition of 
Raghunathavarma's Laukikanydyasangraha, has made it un- 
necessary to reprint the Preface to the former edition of the 
present Handful, seeing that a good part of it was devoted to a 
description of that then-unpublished treatise. For the same 
reason I have omitted the appended list of nyayas contained 
in Raghunatha's work, and which, at no small expenditure of 
time and toil, I compiled from the two MSS. in the India 
Office Library. 

The whole of the explanatory matter attached to the 
nyayas has been thoroughly revised for this edition, and, in 
some cases, has been re-written. In addition to this the book 
will be found to contain thirty-two new nyayas, some of them 
of considerable importance, and all of them more or less interest- 
ing. The six Systems seem to be the most attractive part 
of the field for the study of similes of the class which predomi- 
nates in these pages; but grammatical commentaries also, 
appear likely to prove a not unfruitful field to the painstaking 

For the reasons given in the preface to the Third Handful 
I would gladly have seized this opportunity of eliminating the 
word ' Maxims ' from the titlepage ; but it was not politic to 
change the name adopted ten years ago and repeated in each 
new issue. 

It is not probable that this will pass into a third edition 
during my lifetime ; but I trust that in its present form it may 
prove helpful to young students whose reading has not bene 
quite so wide as my own. 


23 Sept. 1900. / G. A. JACOB. 

Idst of additional authors quoted In the 
following pages. 

Ayamaprdmanya of Yamunacarya Swamin (Rainanuja's Para- 
maguru= guru's guru); Medical Hall Press, Benares 1900. 

Atmabodha of S'ankaracarya, edited, with Commentary, by 
Fitzedward Hall; Mirzapur, 1852. 

Atmatattvaviveka of Udayana, with four Commentaries ; Bib. 
Ind. Series, Part i, 1907. See also First Handful. 

Bodhicarydvatdra of S'antideva, with the Com. of Prajna- 
karamati, edited by Prof. L. de la Vallee Poussin ; Bib. Ind. 
Series, 1901-1907. Incomplete. 

Gaudapada's karikas on Mandukya* Upanisad ; Anandas'rama 
Sanskrit Series, Poona, 1890. 

Indian Thought, a quarterly Magazine edited by Dr. G. Thi- 
baut and Prof. Ganganatha Jha ; Allahabad, 1907. 

Kiranavali of Udayana, on Pras'astapada's bhdsya ; Benares 
Sanskrit Series, 1885 and 1897. A mere fragment. 

Klrtikaumudl of Somes'varadeva, edited by Abaji Vishnu 
Kathavate ; Bombay, 1883. 

Laukikanyayaratnalcara of Raghunathavarman ; India Office 

MS. 582. 

Madhyamakavritti of Candraklrti on Nagarjuna's karikas, 
edited by Prof. L. de la Vallee Poussin ; Bibliotheca Bud- 
dhica, St. Petersburg, 1903-1907. Incomplete. 

Mahabhdsya with the Pradlpa of Kaiyata, and Nages'a's 
Uddyota; edited by Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit S'ivadatta 
D. Kudala; voL i (Navahnika); Nirnayasagar Press 
1908. A fine edition. 

Maliabhdsyapradlpoddyota of Nages'a Bhatta, in course of 


publication in Bib. Ind Series, Calcutta ; Vols. i and ii; and 
part of iii, already issued. 

Medinl, a dictionary of homonymous words, edited by Soma- 
nath Mukhopadhyaya ; Calcutta, 1869. 

Nitis'ataka of Bhartrihari; Nirnayasagar Press, Bombay, 
Samvat 1947. 

NydyadlpdMali of Anandabodhacarya, published together with 
Nyayamakaranda in Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series, Be- 
nares, 1907. 

NyCiyamaldvistara of Madhavacarya ; Anandas'rama Sanskrit 
Series, 1892. 

Nydyamanjarlsdra, a Commentary on Nydyasiddhdntaman- 
jarl ; The Pandit, 1907. 

Nydyasiddhdnjana, of Venkantanath ( of Ramanuja's School ); 
Medical Hall Press, Benares, 1901. 

Pancapddikdvivarana of Prakas'atma Yati ; Vizianagram San- 
skrit Series, Samvat 1948. 

Paramdrthasdra of S'esha; Lucknow, 1876. 
Paribhdsendus'ekhara, Text and translation; Bombay San- 
skrit Series, 186874. 

Prabandhacintdmani of Merutunga ; Bombay, 1888. Transla- 
tion by Mr. C. H. Tawney; Bib. Ind. Series, 1901. 

Pramdnamdld of Anandabodhacarya, published with Nyaya- 

dlpavali, as above. 
Sdhityadarpana of Vis'vanatha Kaviraja, edited by Dr. Roer ; 

Bib. Ind. 1851. Translation by Dr. Ballantyne and Mr. 

Pramadadasa Mitra ; Bib. Ind. 1875. 

S'dlikd, or Prakaraiiapancikd, a treatise on Mimamsa accord- 
ing to the school of Prabhakara, by S'alikanatha ; Chau- 
khamba Sanskrit Series, 1903. Originally published in 
the Pandit, 1866 7. Portions of the work are missing. 

SarnbandliavdrtiJca of Sures'varacarya, translated by S. Venka- 
taramana Aiyar, B. A.: Medical Hall Press, 1905. 


Sarvdrthasiddhi, Venkatanatha's vritti on his own work Tat- 
tvamuktakalapa, for which see First Handful of Maxims. 

S'lokavdrtika of Kumarila, with Parthasarathi's tika ; 
Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series, Benares, 1898. Translation 
by Prof. Ganganath Jha ; Bib. Ind. Series, 1907. 

S'ribJidsya of Eamanuja, with Sudars'anacarya's tika, reprinted 
from the Pandit, 3 vols. 1889-91. An edition of the text 
only, edited by Rev. J. J. Johnson of Benares, is now 
nearing completion in the Pandit. Translation by Dr. G. 
Thibaut in Sacred Books of East Series, 1904. 

Tarkabhdsd of Kes'ava Mis'ra, with the tika entitled Nydya- 
pradlpa of Vis'vakarman ; Medical Hall -Press, Benares, 

Tattvabindu, a treatise on Mimamsa, by Vacaspati Mis'ra; 
Medical Hall Press, Benares, 1892. 

Tattvadvpana of Akhandananda Muni, a commentary on Pan- 
capadikavivarana ; Benares Sanskrit Series, 1902; 

Vaiydsikanydyamdld on the Vedantasutras ; Anandas'rama 
Sanskrit Series, Poona, 1891. 

Vdkyapadfya of Bhartrihari, kandas i and ii, Benares Sanskrit 
Series. 1887. An edition of kanda iii, otherwise styled 
Pmkirnaka, has been commenced in the same Series. 

Vedantaparibhdsd, with the S'ikhdmani and the tika of 
Amaradasa; Venkates'vara Press, Bombay, 1901. Trans- 
lation of the Paribhasa by Mr. A. Venis in the Pandit, 


Vidhirasdyana, a work on Mimamsa, by Appai Diksita ; Chau- 
khamba Sanskrit Series, 1901. 

Vishnu Purdna, with S'riratnagarbha Bhatta's Candrikd en. 
titled Vaisnavakuta ; Krishna S'astri Gurjara's Press, Bom- 


Page 26, line 8. For "ts" say "as". Thisunsightly error crept 

in after the corrected proof had left my hands ! 
Page 28, line 16. For ^j^f read qw<4\. 
Page 30, line 1 1 from bottom. After m insert 


Proclaiming the name of a son before he is lorn. That is, 
counting your chickens before they are hatched. The nyaya, 
in a negative form, is found in the Nydyamanjarl, page 345: 


Even a slight difference [ between two or more things 
or expressions] establishes the fact [that they do differ, 
and enables us to discriminate between them ]. After ex- 
plaining the ^n^jj^r^pT and nine others of similar purport, 
Raghunatha says: " 

The nyaya occurs in 

Mathuranatha's commentary on the opening paragraph of 
Atmatattvaviveka (page 19 ), where, after stating that, accord- 
ing to the Buddhists, moksa is brought about by the know- 
ledge of the non-existence of soul, he says : "ddiVMj^ | A^IWKfg 
3Tt$rer ^5 ^R" *C^d I STRlW^f^t ^^ s^i^rf^i^n^oi: II ^% I 
*T ^ tt ^<lcW<i(k^4 ^I^^U 

Better even a doubtful condition of things than a crushing 
defeat. This occurs in the Nydyavdrtikatdtparyatikd 5. 1. 43. 
( page 491 ): " itf% &P 
T *$<ft ddl^ 

II On page 

473 of the same, and in Nyayamanjari, page 620, it appears 
%: II It is not in any of the lists of nyayas 

to which I have had access, but Raghunathavarman has two of 
the same purport, namely " JTROTPT 

( which see below ), and " muii^T sqrfa: "; andj in Nydyamdld- 
vistara 6. 2. 7. Madhava gives us "sreRgTurm^jHiCN;" II All of 
these seem akin to our " Half a loaf is better than no bread. " 

The method of ittuwry attribution followed by its with- 
drawal. This nyaya belongs entirely to the Vedantists, but I 
follow Raghunatha in admitting it here. The two terms are 
explained as follows in the Veddntasdra: "Illusory attribu- 
tion is the attributing to the real of that which is unreal ; as a 
snake is imagined in a rope which is not a snake." "The with- 
drawal is the assertion that the whole of the unreal, beginning 
with Ignorance, which is an illusory effect of the Real, is no- 
thing but the Real; just as a snake, which is the illusory effect 
of a rope is nothing whatsoever but the rope." This rendering 
is from my Manual of Hindu Pantheism,, pages 44 and 83. 
On page 42, there is the following note which includes a quota- 
tion from page 209 of that valuable book A Rational Refuta- 
tion of Hindu Philosophical Systems: 

"12. Illusory attribution &c. ( adhydropdpawxla ). 

In order to describe the pure abstraction Brahma, the teacher 


attributes to him, or superimposes on him, certain qualities 
which in reality do not belong to him, and then afterwards 
withdrawing them, teaches that the residuum is the undiffer- 
enced Absolute. When the Vedantins speak of the origin of 
the world, they do not believe its origin to be true. This mode 
of expression they call false imputation ( adhydropa ). It con- 
sists in holding for true that which is false, in accommodation 
to the intelligence of the uninitiated. At a further stage of 
instruction, when the time has arrived for propounding the 
esoteric view, the false imputation is gainsaid, and this gainsay- 
ing is termed rescission ( apavdda )." 

See also a long note on page 172 of the text of the Veddnta- 
sdra. The verse in the Vivekacuddmani, there referred to, 
should be 140 instead of 170. 

The maxim of a looking-glass for a blind man. It is found 
in Upamitibhavaprapancd Kathd, page 836, as follows: 

\ f 

i: " || See also S'esanantacarya on Nydyasiddhantadlpa, 
page 22, line 2. The Laukikanydyaratndlcara gives the fol- 
lowing example:" ^^ <nfa% , ^ ?nfo *nf sr^T STTW rRT 
SJTtfcT 1%1 4 I sfcRTWlt feClH^ ^ifa: f% ^STfw " II I have no 
doubt that the reference is to the Yogavdsishtlia, but the verse 
is also found in the Hitopades'a (iii., 115). See, too, under 

One who leans on a blind man will fall with him at every 
step. This is akin to the saying " If the blind lead the blind, 
both will fall into the ditch." It occurs in Bhdmatl ( page 20 ) 

as follows: " 
I ; 

|| Compare the following expression in Venkata- 
natha's vritti on his TattvamuJddlcaldpa iii. 50: " ^% ^|^^ 
T: " II Though not exactly parallel with the 

nyaya, the following verse of Jayanta's ( page 120 ) will not 
be out of place here: " ^*M3llfcMI-^T f^W qrJ 

Noisy boasting Ufa that of an [ unskilful ] archer whose 
arrows always miss the mark. This simile occurs in the 
Atmatattvaviveka (page 49), but was no doubt borrowed 
from Magha ii. 27: 

" The chatter of a talkative man who has no knowledge of 
affairs, is as useless as the swaggering of an archer whose 
arrows always miss the mark." 

The simile of crying in the wilderness. Used to imply 
wasted effort. Molesworth defines it as "A term for unregard- 
ed or unavailing complaint or supplication. " The following 
verse from Namisadhu's comment on Rudrata's Kdvydlankdra 
viii. 37 includes not only this nyaya but also Raghunatha's 

probably his 3^4^1^1*1; for Dr. Bohtlingk, who quotes the 
verse as from Pancatantra, gives ffinsgWK^ui: as a variant 

See also Pancatantra i. 393; Kirandvali page 5', and Kusu- 
manjali, voL ii, page 176. 

He has the right who has the want, the power, and the wit 
This nyaya is found in the Jairnini section of Sarvadars'ana- 
sangraha as follows: "gjsff ^r?Jf f^gMf^^d ^ ^I^T ^f- 

" u 

fessor Cowell translated it thus: "According to the old rule 
' He has the right who has the want, the power, and the wit,' 
those who are aiming to understand certain things, as the new 
and full-moon sacrifices, use their daily reading to learn the 
truth about them." 

The saying is found in a more complete form in Vaiydsika- 
nydyamdla 1. 3. 9, namely, "grs 

which is itself a reproduction of the following passage 
in S'dnkarabhasya 1. 3. 25: 

Dr. Thibaut renders it thus: "The Sastra, al- 
though propounded without distinction (i. e. although not itself 
specifying what class of beings is to proceed according to its 
precepts), does in reality entitle men only ( to act according to 
its precepts ); for men only ( of the three higher castes ) are, 
firstly, capable ( of complying with the precepts of the S'fistra ); 


are, secondly, desirous ( of the results of actions enjoined by the 
S'astra ); are, thirdly, not excluded by prohibitions ; and are, 
fourthly, subject to the precepts about the Upanayana cere- 
mony and so on. This point has been explained in the section 
treating of the definition of adhikara ( Purva Mlmanisa vi. 1)." 
For the last-mentioned, see under srf^PRTRT in the third 
Handful This question of sroTc^ &c. will be found also in 
S'ankarabhasya 1. 1. 4 ( page 54 ); 1. 3. 26, 33, 34; and 2. 2. 10. 


The simile of the slaying of one half [of a body, whilst 
the other half is kept alive ! ]. Raghunathavarman defines it 
as tollows: 

3gnn*lrflfd 3w4:" II The nyaya is therefore expressive of absur- 
dity, contradiction, or incongruity; and so, in some respects, 
resembles the arvlHtflqi|K|. The earliest example, known to 
me, of the use of the term is in Kumarasambliava iv. 31, where 
Rati complains that, by destroying Kama, Fate had slain half of 
herself. The verse stands thus:" fcRni fomv&KJ ^3 irf 
bNH^ ftgaidi i swmRiPi isr^rar^ 1 Jrsnra TCRTT ^ft " u 
Mallinatha points out that as the slaying of a part involves that 
of the whole, Rati here announces her own destruction also, as 
is clearly implied in the second half of the verse. Its employ- 
ment here by Kalidasa, however, is in a literal sense, whilst 
the philosophical writers apply it figuratively. 

In the latter part of S'ankara's bhasya on Brahmasiitra 3. 3. 
18 we find the expression "^ u4%JRT *T*r^RT", and I have 
noted it in Tantrrawrtika, pages 84, 89, 97 and 202. The first 
of the four passages is the following: "srfrfr* %fei%5 * ^rT- 
JrR*3Wr: I fert$ <cM4i5MftrfrT ^K^mq, " II In this passage, 
as well as in the other three, contradiction or inconsistency 

is clearly implied. So, too, in a passage in Nydyakandali, 
page 6, line 3; and in Khandanakhandakhadya, page 685. 
One more example will suffice, namely Brihadaranyavdrtika 
1. 4. 1276: " ^ =^TvJ<^i 5% <nta?i*i 1%^%^ I ^^|*H f^ 1 ^T?TT sh^j: 
^t^f^f^d^l^d: " II Anandagiri explains this in the manner 
stated above by Raghunatha, viz. " 

Failing to obtain a lovely woman, affection is seen [to 
have been lavished ] on animals. This very stupid nyaya ia 
expounded by Raghunatha as follows:" ^ifaebi^ifrsg'TTff 

- < 

5^rnr: I 4j-d=bll ?: ll I have met with it only in the 

Atmatattvaviveka (page 130) and in Anandabodhacarya's 

Pramdnamdld, page 2. 

The simile of a she-mule's being in foal Raghunatha ex- 
plains it thus:" dHgj M*HfeT:*<mtTM |c^4> ^R 1& 

|| The following verse, bear- 
ing on this subject, is found in Hitopades'a, ii. 135, Panca- 
tantra, ii. 32 and iv. 14:" ^^ 3 srf^ 3^: ^Ml^^fd I 

f ^+N i;Tfrf Jnl?T^?rf1r ^nri " II As Dr. Peterson points out 
in his Note on the verse from Hitopades'a, the second line is 

found in Adiparva (Bombay edn.) CXL. 83 (not 75, as wrongly 
printed ), and in S'antifxwva CXL. 30 ( not 347 as stated ). 
In a footnote to Indisclie Sprilche 58, Dr. Bohtlingk quotes 
Nilakantha's comment on the verse from S'antiparva* 


SRJW wfa srfol^." Of like import 
are two other nyayas quoted by Haghunatha, namely qr^ft- 
i^rjjm and ffacnu!Mnr. As to the former of these, compare 
the following, Vanaparva CCLXVJII. 9 ( Bombay edn. ): 

n This verse is quoted by 
Johnson in his Notes on Hitopades'a II. 147, and he adds, " In 
the Gulistan, the Persian poet Saadi declares that the young 
of the scorpion eats its way out through the mother's entrails"; 
and in VedoMdkalpataru, page 354, line 2, we are told "ffaj^jT- 
te*flsi*3J ftf$ra ^dMl-Md. " Udayana ( in AtmatattvaviveJca, 
page 67, line 9 ) seems to assert the same thing of the crab: 

The simile of the opium-eater and tltefislierman. I have 
not met with this in actual use in the literature, but include it 
on the authority of Raghunathavarman, whose interpretation 
of it, however, seems most improbable. The word sr^ is said 
by him to mean " an intoxicating plant, known in the language 
of the West as Post " ( " ^| W aftafaf^Ff: ifr^ft TTSTTW- 
vjlViquj^" ). This meaning of aT% is unknown to the lexicogra- 
phers; but, in Bate's Hindi dictionary, ^T is said to mean 
" the poppy-plant ; an infusion of the poppy formerly much 
used as a slow poison ; " whilst Fallon defines it as "Poppy- 
head or capsule; an intoxicating drug." We must take srnf 
therefore in the sense of srf^fcr which is the original 
of the modern sr^RT, opium. The story on which the 
maxim is said to be based is as follows: 


|| This nonsense is meant to teach the identity of 
the individual with the one Self! 


That which at the beginning and the end has no [real] 
existence, has none either during the intervening period. The 
Vedantists of S'ankara's school hold that existence is of three 
kinds, namely, pdramdrthika ( true ), of which Brahma is the 
sole representative, vydvahdrika (practical), to which all 
phenomena belong, and prdtibhasika ( apparent ), which in- 
cludes such things as a snake surmised in a rope, or nacre mis- 
taken for silver. The second and third kind, therefore, have 
no real existence from the beginning to the end of their sup- 
posed existence. 

Raghunatha says regarding it:" 

ll He may 

have taken the nyaya, like so many others in his book, from 
the Yogavdsistha where it is found as the first line of 4. 45. 45; 
but its real source is Gaudapada's karikas on the Mdndukya 
Upanisad. It occurs twice there, namely in ii. 6 and iv, 31. 

Watering a mango-tree, and, at the same time, satisfying 
the Manes with a libation. Bringing about two results by 
one operation. Its earliest occurrence is in the Mahdbhasya, 
where it appears twice. In 1. 1. 1 ( page 14 ) it stands thus: 


instance is in 8. 2. 3. 

The nyaya in its consolidated form is found in the following 
passage of the Nydyamanjarl ( 5. 1. 39 ), page 634. 

It is not in any of the dictionaries or lists of nyayas. 


Questioned as to mango trees, he speaks of Kovidara trees. 
This is nyaya 223 of the second part of Raghunathavarman's 
large work, the Laukikanydyaratndkara, and is applied by 
him as follows (page 41 9a of India office MS. 582): "^SJT 

iridMi^cfc+iiTfi'!!: MldMI^I- 

is found in 

22 ( page 145 ): " ^mi^m 

kalpataru 1. 4. 1 (page 201 ): "^ 2 <T ^&?Mt 

II There 

also an excellent example in the Nyayavartikatatparyatika, 
page 187, line 16, and another on page 545 of the comment on 
Tattvamuktdkaldpa. Its source, however, is Mahdbhdsya 1. 2. 
45 (vart. 8):-" 

Butter is life. This scarcely deserves a place amongst 
maxims, but I follow Raghunatha in admitting it. It is one of 
the stock illustrations of writers on Alankara, and is found 
in Namisadhu's comment on Rudrata's Kdvydlanlcara vii. 83, 
as follows: 

31 '3W 

I have traced it, however, as far back as Tait.-Sa m hitd 2. 3. 
2. 2, and have met with it again in Mahdbhdsya, 1. 1. 59 
( vart. 6 ), and 6. 1. 32 ( vart. 6 ). For the last passage see 
" ^TsTJpf srerSTT 33*: " in the Third Handful. Sures'vara too 
furnishes an excellent example of it in his large vdrtika 1. 5. 
1848:" qft^T 


The illustration of one who is satisfied with sweetmeats 
in prospect. It is found in a verse quoted in Nyayakandati, 
page 130: 

T H 

The same verse is quoted on page 37 of Khandanakhanda- 
khddya, and is translated by Prof. Ganganatha Jha (in the new 
periodical, Indian Thought) as follows: "But, says an objector, 
from your theory it would follow that those who enjoy merely 
imaginary sweets, and those who eat real sweets, would have 
exactly the same experiences of flavour, strength, nutritive 
effects, and so on. He, we reply, who flatters himself with the 
hope of this objection invalidating our view, truly himself feeds 
upon imaginary sweets (fomaifi 5nvny<4minft<HHc> )" In 
Nyayadlpavali, p. 7, we read "^uii 


The illustration of the arrow-maker. Used of one wholly 
engrossed in his work, and unconscious of his surroundings. 
It is based on the following verse of S'dntiparva, chapter 178:- 

qrnj; " (I S'ankara makes use of it in his exposition of Vedanta- 
sutra 3. 2. 10 ["gr^s^MRi; q^iMiq;." In the case of one in 
a swoon ( there is not entrance into either of the states of sleep 
&c. ), so, by the only remaining alternative, there is a semi- 
entrance (into sound sleep and another state)]. He says: 

" II Anandagiri 


refers to the same nyaya in his comment on Sures'vara's large 
Vdrtika 1. 5. 106 ( page 816 ). See, too, Nydyamalcaranda- 
tlk(i, page 78. Compare with this the picture drawn by John 
Banyan of "a man who could look no way but downwards, 
with a muck-rake in his hand. There stooda Iso one over his 
head with a celestial crown in his hand, and proffered him that 
crown for his muck-rake ; but the man did neither look up nor 
regard, but raked to himself the straws, the small sticks, and 
the dust of the floor". 

The simile of the gradual diminution of the speed of an 
arrow. It is found in Brahmasutrabhasya 3. 3. 32: " JTfrT- 
*&m *4<Umfl g^fcl IWTTT%IT%:" || Then, in Brihadd- 
ranyavdrtika- 1. 4. 1529 ( page 736 ) we read as follows: 

" The experience of passion and other mental conditions, owing 
to the continuance of the body caused by the remnant of fruc- 
tescent works, is like the [ diminishing ] speed of a [ potter's ] 
wheel or of an arrow." Upon which Anandagiri remarks: 
II 3T2TT H<T<oHI$IMI<^Hiy^l^4 ^PT^THSg^nTt ^TfrTT^T I 
fW *t7?m ' f *STTTO g(Mlfe<a4;" II The quo- 

tation is Veddntasutra 4. 1. 19. In S'ankara's most interesting 
exposition of sutra 4. 1. 15, we meet with the expression 
in the same connection. 

The idea of something higher is to be superimposed upon 
something lower. This is Dr. Thibaut's rendering of the nyaya 
as it occurs in Brahrnasutrabhasya 4. 1. 5 ( the sutra being 


i <VM i 

the following reply. The contemplation on Brahman is exclu- 

sively to be superimposed on Aditya and so on. Why ? 'On ac- 
count of exaltation.' For thus Aditya and so on are viewed in 
an exalted way, the contemplation of something higher than 
they being superimposed on them. Thereby we also comply 
with a secular rule, namely the one enjoining that the idea of 
something higher is to be superimposed upon something lower, 
as when we view and speak of the king's charioteer as a 
king." Vacaspatimis'ra, in his comment on the above in the 
Bhamatl, changes the form of the expression to " ft 

an( i perhaps Kamanuja had this in mind 
when, in his very short comment on the sutra, he wrote 

The simile of the snake whose fangs have been extracted. 
The illustration is used by Sures'vara in his vartika on 
BrihaddranyaJcopanisJiadbMshya 1. 4 1746 ( page 776 ): 

It is wrong to quarrel with that on which one's livelihood 
depends. It is found in Paribhashendus'ekhara 85, as follows:- 

" II Professor Kielhorn 
has rendered it thus: " <-|P^md ' a combination ' is the junction 
of two ( things ; that which is taught in ) a rule ( the applica- 
tion of ) which is caused by such ( a combination ), does not 


cause ( the application of ) another ( rule ) which would destroy 
that combination. This ( Paribhasha ) is founded on the maxim 
that one must not be hostile to that to which one owes one's 

There are references to the nyaya in the following works: 
Khandanakhandakhadya, page 128; Veddntakalpataru, 
pages 231, and 556 ( especially the latter ); Parimala, pages 
10, 11, 12, 451; TSyayamakarandatika, page 149. 

The illustration of the camel and the stick. The equivalent, 
apparently, of " Hoist with his own petard " ( Hamlet, Act iii, 
Scene iv ), The following is Raghunatha's exposition of it: 

<?md f<if-^i4+i 11111 Mmin' <i-+< <i 

II It occurs in 

the following passage of the Atmatattvaviveka ( page 54, line 
16 ): "< 

|| There is another instance of it in Veddntakalpa- 
taru, page 118 (where it appears as the ^g^d-mq ) ? and 
again in Nydyadipavali page 6, line 11. 


The simile of rain on a saline barren waste. Its application 
is similar to that of amuffl^H, which see above. Hemacandra 
has a good example of it in his Parisis' taparvan viii. 417: 

Tn ''*< <^ii^M<'^*t3'3,i e i^ 


In Anus 'dsanaparva xc. line 4314, we read: " 


JVo one tries to accomplish in a round-about way a thing 
which can be effected by direct means. This nyaya is the 
counterpart of gj^p ^^T^ f^^T & c -> ar >d is used twice by 
Vacaspatimis'ra in his Nydyavdrtikatdtparyatllcd. On page 
195, we read:" ^ ^ ^r^W bl<um^4fi<4di ^c(^| 


A g ain on page 203: " 

NHi*i('Hit > ' H 
A still older example is found in S'dlika, page 86: 


J n 

See, also, TarkabTidsd, page 48, line 5. 


Bare assertion is no proof of the matter asserted. This is 
Professor Gough's rendering of the saying as found in the 
Bauddha chapter of the Sarvadars'anasangraha ( page 10 of 
Jivananda's eda ): " q-f^ qjfsicMI 

r i T srw: i 

II The following is from the Laukikanydya- 
sangraha: " ^r^cHi^^O 1 Mkt^l 

|| The nyaya "^% ^i%^wrapJira%%:'' is given 
in Raghunatha's list as one of similar import. Compare 
Nydyavdrtika, page 345, line 11: "sr ^ 5r%g7 5rf% 



Whilst avoiding one kind of fallacy, another kind ap- 
pears! This is explained by Raghunatha as follows: "^ 

<m ^ v* ( fo (^ 1. 1 M 4 d " II 
The work here entitled Bauddhddhikara is styled Bauddha* 
dhikkdra in Hall's Index ( pp. 81, 82 ). It is more generally 
known as AtmatattvaviveJca ; and the passage in question is 
found on page 108, as follows:" 3^3 gff 

II The 

same passage is clearly referred to in Citsukhi I. 24 (Pandit, vol- 
v. page 110 ): " % 

T " II So, too, Venkatanatha in the comment on 
his Tattvamuktakalapa- iii. 22 ( p. 289 ), and again in his 
Nydyasiddhdnjana, page 100. For a clear and concise 
definition of the three terms ^T^^lP-l^, ^^mf&< and 
f^, see Apte's Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, s. v. 

The illustration of a cow [tied] in an enclosure. This occurs 
in Khandanakhandakhddya, page 632: "q 

The commentator explains as follows: " 

^i^id: u 

add that the long passage beginning with the words "f 
^T%," n page 632, down to the words "^^rr %f' on page 
637, is taken ver&atfira f rom Uday ana's A tTnatattvaviveka, pages 
70 to 72. It includes another, and probably the earliest, 
example of the use of the nyaya "4*mr^T 4Hu*oi|fti|g:", for 
which, see the first Handful of maxims. 


The simile of the golden ornament on the neck A person 
is supposed to have a golden ornament round the neck and yet 
to be unaware of it until some one points it out ; a kind of 
illustration greatly in vogue amongst Vedantists, who tell us 
that although we are already Brahma, and free, we are not 
aware of the fact until instructed by a competent teacher ! For 
the translation of a passage of the Veddntaparibhashd bearing 
on this, see pages 130 and 131 of my Manual of Hindu 
Pantheism. The above nyaya is found at the top of page 130 
of Atmatattvavivelca. 

The simile of the fruit of the plantain tree. For explanation 
of this see spa^fift'T^ferTO'. Another instance of it is found in 
Naiskarmyasiddhi iv. 14: "ai^NN^aifa ^^T cfcW W." 
See, also, Bodhicaryavatdra i. 12. 

The simile of the woodapple on the [ open palm of the ] 
hand. Said of something unmistakably clear "as plain as a 
pike-staff"! It occurs in Sures'vara's large Vartika 2. 1. 95: 

Again in 2. 5. 136 of the same: " 

third instance is found in 4. 3. 1334, and there is another in the 
vartika on the Taittiriyopanwhadbliasliya, page 200. Of 
exactly the same import is the ^^fin^^^i^r, for which see the 
former Vartika 3. 1. 14. 

Abundance of labor produces abundance of fruit; from 
great pains come great gains. It occurs in the following 
passage of Vidyaranya's Vivaranaprameyasangraha, page 


Compare S'abara's 

10. 6. 62. and 11. 1. 15. It is quoted in Parimala, page 600. 

The simile of the man who eats from a brazen vesseL 
Raghunatha explains it thus:" jjqr ft 

The nyaya is taken from Jaimini's sutra 12. 2. 34, where 
S'abara interprets it as follows: "efri^+flfjHrji 

f% " u The 

principle here laid down is that of some one's doing something 
which he is not bound to do, in order that he may not hinder 
another who is required to do it* The converse, that is, of a 
man's abstaining from doing something, possibly harmless in 
his case, lest another should do the same and suffer harm. 
" If meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh 
while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend, " 

Examples of the nyaya are found in Tantravdrtilea, pages 
J393, 577, and 907; in Vidhirasdyana, page 50; in Bhdmatl, 
page 478; in Vedantakalpataru, pages 314, 425, 502, 517; and 
in Parimala, pages 462, 572, 666. 


The simile of the crow's and owl's night-time. What is day 
to the former is night to the latter, and vice versa. This 
characteristic of the owl is often referred to by the poets, as, 
for instance, in Bhartrihari's Nttis'ataka 93: 

The nyaya is found is Sures'vara's large vartika 1. 4. 313: 

Anandagiri comments on this as follows: 

'TTT hH ^T rT^n ^T^n^T^5TTI I l^fT 
Nij<^tc|(^%" II The quotation in 

the second line of Sures'vara's verse is from Gltci ii-69 which 
reads thus: "^n f^RTT ST^rRt <T^Tt ^rmfi ?Pnft I *I*ri 3mn% 
^nf^ ^TT PRTT q^T^t 5^:" II In Naiskarmyasiddhi iii. Ill 
the nyaya is quoted as ^c&bfctallcT^. The passage stands thus: 
4HJ'5l < Wi^l*m^.l ( :*lir :5S^TT3TrSl ^ 4 WiR II 

The principle of the reproduction, in the effect, of certain 
qualities, in the proportion in which they exist in the produc- 


ing cause. In the Veddntasdra, section 12, we read: " 

II Q which, the 

commentator Nrisimhasarasvati remarks: 

:" II For full notes on ^r^ioi, see 

page 176 of the Veddntasdra referred to above. 

The illustration of the redness of cotton [produced by 
smearing the cotton-seeds with red lac ]. One of the stock 
illustrations of the Buddhist when seeking to establish the 
doctrine that all existence is momentary (^onri^T^). For 
the examination and refutation of the tenet, see S'ankara on 
Brahmasutras 2. 1. 18, 2. 2. 20 &c.; and the opening part of 
the Arhata chapter of Sarvadars'anasangraha. The nyaya 
is contained in the following verse: 

This is quoted in Syddvddamanjarl, pages 155 and 193 ; 
in Manibhadra's comment on karika 5 of Saddars'ana- 
samuccaya; in a slightly altered form, on page 1501 of 
Brihaddranyalcavdrtika; in Nyayamanjarl, page 443 ; in the 
vritti on Tattvamulddkalapa i. 29 ; and in the Arhata section 
of Sarvadars'anawnyraha, where Professor Cowell renders 
it: "In whatever series of successive states the original 
impression of the action was produced, there verily accrues the 
result, just like the redness produced in cotton :> . We find the 
frml*UHH*lPdiglT< in Nyayamanjarl page 465, in the con- 

cluding portion of the author's ^UI^^H^I^, and the following 
extract from the Atmatattvaviveka (page 102) explains the 
process: q^r miq*i=w5+<s<:f *ii4Hi^m 


fM t r^f^TT." In the closing verses 

of the EUiqUsH^K (S'lokavdrtika, page 267) Rumania deals 
with this Buddhist illustration in connection with a citron 
(^jf^O instead of the cotton plant; and we meet with it 
again in Bliamatt 1. 1. 4 ( page 95 ). 

What lias a seller of ginger to do with ships ? Possibly the 
equivalent of "No cobbler beyond his last." It occurs in the fol- 
lowing passage of Atmatattvaviveka, page 62, line 10: 

A wise man should not imagine that he can remove with a 
Jinger-nail that which can only be cut down with an axe. A 
caution against under-rating the strength of an enemy. It 
occurs in Upamitibhavaprapanca Katha, page 1044: 

^xiit^W^fll ^^TRn^^J?! T HC'^dJ II 
Compare Udayana's saying in KiranavaU, page 74:" 

Like a decoration without a wall [ to be decorated; or, like a 


painting without a canvas ]. An unreality, like a hare's horn 
&c. It is found in the Nyayamanjarf,, page 103, in a disquisi- 
tion on 

A much older example is contained in Sdnkhyakarika 41: 
t f^TT 

" ii 

There is a similar thought in Aniruddha's comment on 
Sdnkhyasutra iii. 12. He says: "qincTRT tor ^tsfW!% 5T- 
grmd^T 5jcf^sffrn% JT^IT: ^nci; i ^ %cf?^ i q^n^^ 11 ! I%TT T 
^ITT f^TT% f^TT q- W ^r^" II See also Mallinatha on 
Tarkikarahsa, page 111 and 176. 

The simile of milk and water. Used to illustrate the most 
intimate union of two or more things. The oldest example of 
it known to me is in Mahabhasya 1. 2. 32: 

." Writers on Alankara employ it to exemplify 
the figure called Sankara (Commixture), in which there is a 
combination of other figures. It differs from Samsrishti 
(Collocation) which is compared to the union between rice and 
sesamum, which is less intimate and easily distinguishable. 
The author of the Alankarasarvasva- (page 192) says: 


Similarly too in Sarasvatikanthdbharana ( page 262 ): 

: i 


It will be noticed that here there is mention of a third kind 
of combination which is likened to that of man and lion. The 
three kinds are noticed in Kuvalaydnanda, also (page 337), 
as follows:" st 

The simile of pigeons alighting on a threshing-floor. Used 
by writers on Alankara to illustrate the production of a certain 
effect by the simultaneous action of numerous causes. In Sdhi- 
tyadarpana ( 739 ) we read:" qg^pfteifl *&!* fc ^^f 
*m*% I *s& ^MIIdcbMNMccfe<; ^uq^isf^ %q;" II "The conjunc- 
tion is when notwithstanding the existence of one cause suffi- 
cient to bring about an effect, there are represented others pro- 
ducing the same, according to the maxim of the Threshing-floor 
and the pigeons." See this, also, very concisely put, in 
Alankdrasarvasva, page 161, and in Kuvalayananda, p. 240. 
There is further reference to this nyaya in Mallinatha on 
Magha x. 16, and in Nyayamdldvistara 11. 1. 3. 


A lamp which lias gone out will burn up again if touched 
with sulphur-powder. The use of this illustration will be seen 
from the following passage of the vritti on Tattvamuldakalapa 
ii. 65: " ?T W^3 5 $ni^ 

The simile of the partition of the flesh of an Iguana whilst 
it is still in its hole! Used to illustrate an impossibility. Ra- 
ghunatha says of it: " 

MMd^." It occurs, in the form given above, in 
Khandanakhandakhddya page 640: 


The simile of the slioes on the neck. This qtlaint iiyaya 
appears to be used when an opponent is compelled to accept 
certain conclusions or else adopt an utterly absurd alternative- 
It occurs three times in CitsuJcfii. The first instance is in i. 11 
(Pandit, voL IV, page 484), as follows: 

rdi-Hi4 srft 


|| This verse is quo- 

ted in the second chapter of the Vedantaparibhaslid, and a 


translation of it, and of the comment on it, by Professor Venis 
will be found in the Pandit for 1883, page 660. I subjoin 
that portion which contains the simile. "For the existence of 
these things cannot be surmised anywhere but in their sub- 
strates ...... , and if the existence of these things, in their sub- 

strates, cannot be surmised..., then the unreality of things is 
the only conclusion (forced upon us), much in the same way 
that a man must hang his shoes round his neck if he will not 
wear them on his feet." The other two examples are in i. 26, 
and ii. 16 (Pandit, vol v, pages 112 and 435). It is found also 
in Atmatattvaviveka, page 45, in Khandanoddhdra, pages 7 
and 124, and in Upamitibhavaprapancd Kathd, page 284, in 
the erroneous form "7^5 inf^i." 

The explanation given by Eaghundthavarman differs en- 
tirely from the above, and is extremely far-fetched and unsatis- 
factory. He says:" ^^dl^MMM^qr^R 1 M**mE>*lfr * ST- 

l l 

The robbers have got away with the booty ; who is able to 
intercept them ? This saying is quoted by Vacaspatimis'ra in 
his comment ( on page 59 ) on Nyayavartika 1,1. 2. " snrnrt- 

37 ^fi \ ?r 

3 1% d^^id i*qM<^?><<4 I T^TT^: I 
lfd " II It is found also in Khandanod- 

dhara, page 119. 


The simile of a lighted lamp inside a vessel. Raghunatha 
points out that a lamp so placed illuminates only the interior of 
the vessel, and he applies it to one whose knowledge of Brah- 
man is of a low order. The maxim is used very differently, 
however, by Anandavardhana in his Dlivanydloka iii. 33 ( page 
190), ts the following extract will show: " 

Abhinavagupta, when explaining Dhvanydloka i. 12, refers to 
this passage in the following words: "^ ir 

5T f^Ni:" II According to these great author- 
ities on Alankara, therefore, the nyaya teaches that as the lamp 
continues to burn after it has lighted up the interior of the 
vessel, and is indeed essential to the continuance of that illumi- 
nation, so the expressed meaning of a sentence is absolutely 
essential as a basis for the figurative meaning which it also 

This has the same meaning and application as the 
q&frMPT? ^ which see the first series of maxima It occurs in 
Sures'vara's large VdrtiJca 4. 4. 248, and 6. 2. 155, as follows: 

II Similarly, in his vartika on the Taittimya- 

bhashya 2. 1. 221 (page 86):-"^,%^^ 
^: I ^Tn?T9l^?TFciT ^Rfr^f^Rt ^?: " II It is found too in a 
third work of his, namely Naiskarmyasiddhi i. 42. Also in 
the Jain treatise Prabandhacintamani, page 62, as follows; 


In Upamitibhavaprapancd Katha, pages 52, and 418, ifc 
appears as aKqgqJUlgMH- In Klrtikaumudl vi. 43, we have 
the compound a^g^H&ifedKfelfeKI^K^;. Tlle word ar^T? has 
become TZ in Marathi, as in 

The simile of the [continued] revolving of the potter's 
wheel. Followers of both Sankhya and Vedanta have asked 
why, on attaining to right knowledge, a man is not immediately 
liberated. Kapila's answer is contained in Sutra iii. 82. 
" || On which Aniru.ddha sas:" *ror 

|| Srahmasutrabhashya 4. 1. 15 teaches the same 
thing from the Vedantist's standpoint, and propounds the very 
important doctrine that whilst accumulated and current works 
are destroyed by true knowledge, fructescent works, which 
brought about the present existence, are not. Therefore the 
Jlvanmukta has to continue here until death just as the 
potter's wheel continues to revolve until the impetus given to 
it exhausts itself. 

"! M ^ K*I ^r* n 

The maxim of giving up the fabulous gem Cintdmani, and 
tttfdng instead a mere piece of quartz! Its application is 


obvious. Raghunatha applies it to the man who abandons the 
search for the knowledge of Brahma in order to enjoy the 
pleasures of this life. S'dntis'ataka 12, in Haeberlin's Antho- 
logy, bears on this: " 

II So, too, Hitopades'a ii. 60: 

There is an additional example in Upamitibhavaprapancd 
Kathd, page 420:" f 

Then, lower down on the same page, 
this and eight other figures are employed to illustrate the folly 
of one who, though acquainted with the Jaina creed, still clings 
to evil. The whole passage is reproduced for the benefit of 
those who have not the book to refer to. "?n 

& " II On page 170 there is yet another word of 
Siddharsi's in regard to the Cintdmani, namely " 

Movement upward on the part of a quiescent intelligent 
being is dependent on [ the action of ] some other being of in- 
telligence. I should call this an axiom rather than a maxim ; 
but as Anandagiri terms it a laukika-nydya I include it here. 
It occurs in his comment on Bralimasutrabhdshya 4. 3. 5, as 

follows : " 



The simile of particles of the Kataka nut [placed] in water 
[ in order to clear it ]. Manu refers to it in vi. 67 thus: 

" || In the Laukikanydyasangraha the nyaya is 
explained as f ollows: " qvn 

II The larger work, 

the Laukikanyayaratnakara, adds the following quotation in 
support of the definition: "sg% ^NcMK; I aigjM4^N sftt 

i ^c^r ^nr *m ^^ ^d'M^^ n" Tlie 

"worshipful feet" are those of S'ankaracharya, and the verse is 
Atmabodha 5. 

Sures'vara has given a capital illustration of the application 
of this in his large Vartika 4. 3. 975-6 (page 1553): 

There is an interesting example, too, in Hemachandra's 
Paris'istaparvan ii. 4: 

Venkatanatha, however, does not altogether hold with this 
simile ; for in the vritti to his Tattvamuktakaldpa ii. 50 ("page 
215), he says: 



Broth cooked for the son-in-law is also useful for tlie unex- 
pected guest. This, like the ^gfl^lf3Tm aud many others, 
resembles our proverb "killing two birds with one stone." I 
have met with it only in Kuvalaydnanda (page 98) under the 
figure ffT9. The passage is as follows: "VT% ^?T ^TT5TTHT- 

This passage also illustrates another of 
Ragunatha's nyayas, namely Jjgi4*m*)ftd<fl cfrTST T 

Like instructions, for obtaining Takshaka's crest jewel as a 
febrifuge ! An illustration of utter impossibility. It occurs in 
the Nyayabindutika, page 3, line 9, in a passage regarding the 
anubandhas. It runs thus: "gr?r^Tj sfcret 5^: I 3TJ%$ 3 


u" I am indebted to Professor C. 
Bendall for pointing out this passage to me. It is applied by 
Vacaspatimis'ra, in the same sense, in his Tatparyatika, page 3 
and in the Nyayakanika, pages 338 and 417. 

The simile of the bird named Tittibha [ Parra Jacana ]. It 
is baed on the story of this bird as given in the Hitopades'a, 
and is used as an illustration of ridiculous conceit. The verse 
which paves the way for the story is ii. 137: 


The maxim of buttermilk for Kaundinya. This is one of 
Raghunatha's grammatical nyayas, taken from Mahabhasya, 
and is intended to indicate a special exception to a general rule 
as in the sentence snmwft ^T ttm rT3J sftf^^TPT, where an 
exception is made in the case of Kaundinya though included 
amongst the Brahmans. It occurs in Brihaddranyavdrtika 
1. G. 71 (page 881 ): 

On which Anandagiri comments as follows: 

I have noted down seven instances of the occurrence of this 
illustration in the Mahabhasya, namely, 1. 1. 47; 6. 1. 2 (4); 6. 2- 
1; 6. 4. 163 ( 2 ); 7. 1. 72 ( 3 ) ; 7. 2. 117 (2); and 7. 4. 61 (4). It 
will suffice to quote the first, as the other six are practically the 
same: "<^feciw CSFcf: I ^t% f 

See, also, Nagojl Bhatta's pari- 
bhdsa LVII, and Professor Kielhorn's translation of the same. 
Other instances of it will be found in Vdkyayactiya, ii. 352; 
S'lokavartilca, page 617 (verse 15); Tantravartika, page 262 
(last 2 verses); and Bhiimati, 3. 3. 26 ( page 628 ), 

Thou ridiculest the man who taking his gold ties it up in 


a corner of his garment, and then thyself talcing the gold tiest 
it up in the skirt of the sky ! It is found in Atmatattvaviveka, 
( page 58, line 3 from bottom ), as follows: "d 

1 1 ; fl <* 1+1 Rf II 

The simile of a thief [who engaged himself] as a cooh 
His inability to perform the duties, however, led to his discovery 
and arrest. This is intended to teach the folly of undertaking 
to do something quite beyond our powers! Sures'vara is the 
only author in whose works I have met with it. The following 
verse, which contains it, appears in his large Vartika (page 
610 ), and also in that on the Taittirlyopanishadbhashya 
(page 169), the preceding context, too, being identical in both 

The followin is an extract from Anan- 

dagiri's comment on the former passage: ' 

|| The same commenta- 
tor's explanation of the nyaya as it appears in the latter work 
is somewhat different. He says: "c 

<l'3l^<jM*?1t c M+t rc (' ; <4< I 

The nyaya occurs again 

on page 181 of the Taittiriyavartika: " 


A thief's offer of his limbs for examination when the gold 
lias been found under his armpit! This occurs in the Jai- 
mini chapter of Sarvadars'anasangraha (page 134 of Bib. Ind, 
edition, and page 152 of Jlvananda's) of which the following is 
an extract: " 

II Professor Co well's render- 
ing of the passage is as follows: "As for the argument urged 
by Udayana in the Kusumanjali, when he tries to establish that 
immediate and vehement action does not depend on the agent's 
certainty as to the authoritativeness of the speech which sets 
him acting ...... all this appears to us simple bluster, like that of 

the thief who ostentatiously throws open all his limbs before 
me, when I had actually found the gold under his armpit," 

The simile of rice and sesamum seeds. Used to illustrate 
an easily distinguishable union of two or more things, in con- 
tradistinction to the more intimate and indistinguishable union 
exemplified by the commingling of milk and water. For 
examples, see tfttffc^rTO. Also Rudrata's KdvydlanJcdra x. 25. 

The simile of the raising [with the hand, one scale] of a 
balance. That, of course, causes the other scale to go down; 
and so the simile is used to illustrate the bringing about of 
two or more results by one operation. It occurs in the follow- 
ing passage of Pancapadilea ( page 38 ) : " 




on this, Prakas'atman says; " 

Other good examples of it will be found in Nyayavartilea 
3. 2. 12 (top of page 412), the substance of which is reproduced 
in Nydyamanjo/rl, page 456 ; in S'lokavdrtikat'ika, page 311 
(where it is seen in conjunction with the M n q ^^| d ^-M fa^TT^Pr) ; 
and in Vivaranaprameya, page 99, line 4. 

The simile of the grinding of chaff. Used, like 

of any unnecessary and useless effort It occurs in 
Padmapada's PancapddiM, page 68, as follows: " 

Also in the Hitopades'a iv. 13: " 

Sures'vara too makes very frequent use of it. We find it on 
pages 676, 1036, 1334, 1505, and 1572 of his large Vwrtika; 
and on page 176 of his Taittirlyavdrtika. 

The nyaya is not in Raghunatha's book, but he has others 
of the same meaning which I have not met with in the litera- 
ture; namely ^c^^^N, and jrt^JT 

idea is expressed in the following sentence of the Nydyaman- 
jari ( page 645 ): " 


This saying is explained by Taranatha as follows: " 

STflrT:" II It would therefore seem to 
mean "Let this evil fellow, my opponent, chuckle over his ap- 
parent success in this argument, but what about so-and so?" 
I have met with it in Advaitabrahmasiddhi, page 14, in the 
following sentence : " ?TTT^^T ft^fWuirrfr I TT JRft- 

II It occurs again on page 16. 
In the Bhumatl, page 243, we have it in the form 
as follows: 

I t^T TRTT^ ?T?TT 5^3 q^srran^T ^r4: ll" This is de- 
cidedly the clearest example. In his translation of Haridasa's 
comment on Kusumdnjali i. 3, Prof. Cowell's rendering of the 
nyaya is " the principle of satisfying an opponent." 

The illustration of the caterpillar. This illustration is used and 
explained in Brihaddranyakopanishad 4. 4. 3 as follows : 

U I include it because it is found in Raghunatha's 
list; but it is of no practical value. 

The simile of straw, arani wood, and the burning gem [ as 
means of producing fire ]. The kind of fire produced by each 
varies (just as that of a lighted lamp differs from that of burn- 
ing wood or cowdung); and the method of production, too, is 


different; that being in one case blowing, in another attrition, 
and in the third the rays of the sun. The application of the 
nyaya will be seen from the following passage of Nydyamanja- 
rlsdra, page 3, line 5 : "srei ^S^T: %u||<flujflMl3< NaM^f^n? 

For an interesting discussion 
as to the ' capacity ' (^rf^fc) residing in straw &c., see Kusuman- 
jali pages 58-72, and Prof. Cowell's translation, pages 6 and 7. 
The nyaya is not included in Eaghunatha's collection, but is 
explained in the Vdcaspatyam ( s. v. sqro) as follows : 

.'" II 


The simile of a man carryiny a vessel full of oil [and who is 
to be put to death if he spills a drop of it ! ]. This curious 
illustration is given in Bodhicarydvatdra vii-70, and applied 
to one who has adopted the ascetic life: " 

One slwidd abandon an individual for the sake of a whole 
family. This is the first pada of Hitopades'a i. 115 which 
reads thus: "sn^fe $4441*7 mrr^n^ ^ ?T^[ I Zlli ^TT^fm 

anwn^ 'jf^f snfa;" II It is quoted by Auandagiri, in his com- 
ment on Brahmasutrabhdshya 1. 1. 22, as follows: "<fl^%^ 

| Raghunatha expounds it thus in the Laukikanydya- 
sangraha: "wr^T^ 

**fT3T: STflRicr" II Further on he says, "? 

-^I'MNfMdf HlfcHcfd" II A nyaya of similar import to the one 
under consideration is " ^n^T *Tg<W 3T* 
which see below. 

The simile of the fire which has consumed the fuel [ and 
therefore goes out ]. This immediately follows the ^^3^- 
JUJ^H in Raghunatha's list, and is meant to teach much the 
same thing. He says : " ^ntftenrrft ^T *nsM*JT i&tfft 
WtT% <rofcT "i^ci^" || We have an instance of the employ- 
ment of the figure in S'vetds'vatara Upanisad vi. 19; and again 
in S'ankara's bhashya on Brahmasutra i. i. 4 ( page 76 ), and 
Sures'vara's large Vdrtika pages 1593 and 1840. The follow- 
ing is Paramdrthasdra 77: "sre 

I RJR ^ ^: ^TcTTT VTSTnT: " II 

The simile of a man with a stick [ or, men with sticks]. The 
first instance, which I know of, of the employment of this 
nyaya is in a curious passage of Patanjali's on Panini 8. 2. 83, 
for reference to which I am indebted to Professor Kielhorn. It 
occurs also in the Nydyavdrtika on sutra i. 37. In this, and 
in the preceding sdtra, there is a definition of uddharana, 
in the course of which the term d<4^Nl occurs. In regard to 
this the Vartikakara remarks: 



The following from Vachaspatimis'ra's Tattvabindu closely 
resembles the explanation given of the 


The maxim of the Asuras, Ddma, Vyala, and -Kata. This 
is expounded by Raghunatha in the following manner: 

II "Vasishtha," means the Yogavasistha, in Book 4 
( chapters xxv xxxiv ) of which, we have a detailed account 
of these six Asuras. The verse quoted by Raghunatha is not 
found in the printed edition exactly in that form, but 4. 34. 36 
reads thus : 


There is one of similar import in the opening part of then 4 
history, and Mr. M. R. Telang has pointed out a third in the 
closing part of chapter xxiv. 

The simile of Arjuna. Used to show that something, 
though once done, may be done again, as in the case of Arjuna 
who defeated the Kuru race after Krishna had already defeated 

them. Raghunatha says: " E>MJlvi4f(|yi 

Vedic sentences de- 
stroys that error termed the world, which had already been 
destroyed by eternal knowledge (Self, Brahman): just as 
Arjuna slays again the Kuru race already slain by Vasudeva." 
The verse is Sankshepas'drvraka- ii. 38, and the translation 
is that of Mr. Arthur Venis in the Veddntasiddhdntamuktdvali 
(page 174) where the verse is quoted. 

The simile of grain and its husk. The earliest example of 
this figure is in the Brahmabindu Upanishad, verse 18: 

II This verse, with others of similar import, is 
quoted in Pancadas'i iv. The following, from BhdmaU, page 
54, appears also, without any acknowledgement, in the first 
chapter of Sarvadarsanasangitiha : " 
i ?fsrarr i 

^ffAi^un 1 m < *ii"Hitm<i H ^I^^I^M ^iim^iM m^tia II 

Vacaspatimis'ra, however, was not the originator of the 
illustration. It occurs four times in the Mahdbhdsya, namely, 
1, 2. 39; 3. 3. 18; 3. 4. 21 ( vart. 2 ); and 4. 1. 92. The following 
is the passage, the substance of which is reproduced in the 
Bhdmatl and Sarvadars'anasungraha : " 

I 5ET TT^r^t mW^I^PT ^r*^*w<i+l^<i^fd." See, also, 
Nagojl Bhatta's paribhdsd 73. The nyaya seems to have a 
different application in Marathl literature. Molesworth's defini- 


tion is as follows: "The law of the corn and its straw. Conquer 
the king and you conquer his subjects; accomplish or acquire a 
matter and you attain all it sustains or involves." 

i (^<Ioi 

A Brahman does not become a Kirdta by living MI the 
S'dlagrdma mountain filled with hundreds of those barbari- 
ans ! This is equivalent to our saying, " A horse does not be- 
come an ass by being born in the stable of the latter." Compare, 
too, S'ankara's " q- fpsj^TR TT T^TaPOTSTfJfcM^i^SWI <4^4 fd ' ' in 
Brahmasutrabhdsya 1. 4. 1. The saying as given above is 
found in Vacaspatimis'ra's comment on Yogabhdshya i. 5; and 
he makes use of it again in his Bhdmati i 1. 5 ( page 126 ) in 
the sentence " 
.'> ii 


A thing does not become imperceptible because perceived by 
one wlw has ascended a mountain peak This saying, quoted 
from Tantravdrtika 1. 2. 2. (page 6), appears in the Nydyam- 
anjari (page 422) in the course of a discussion on thesddhutva 
and asddhutva of words. The passage is as follows ; " 

II " Jayanta quotes it 
on pages 90 and 222, also. 


The simile of the union of man and lion. Used to illustrate 
a particular kind of Alankara consisting of a combination of 
figures. See the quotations from Sarasvattfcanthabliarana and 
Kuvalaydnanda, under 


Blame is not employed in order to blame something that 
is blameworthy, but rather to praise something other than 
that. This is the form taken by the nyaya in S'abara on Jai- 
mini 2. 4. 20. In Tantravartika, page 16, it appears as "^ 1% 
T%^r fr*z ft&sg SR3& sift 3 l%^f ^tg^," and Anandagiri 
quotes this reading of it in his comment on Brihaddranyak- 
opanisadbhdsya 2. 5. 16. 

The following passage from Agamaprdmdnya, page 51, ad- 
mirably illustrates the meaning of the nyaya: " 

fc ff 


iv. 124) | 

dQ ?TT5q: I 

qM! II 

Another reference to the nyaya will be found i 
jarl page 273. 

A hyena does not find a suitable opponent in a young 
fawn. This may be contrasted with the saying "^ f|- zfrm- 
STT%?rcT *R1%." It is found in the Nyaya- 

vdrtikatdtparyatlkd, page 33: '^^R^T 1% fosj: 
I T if *RTcf <rcj: sffrnrsn tHtaro 


fZo "woi refrain from setting the cooking-pots on the 
fire because there are beggars [ who may come to ask for some 
of the contents ], nor do they abstain from sowing barley be- 
cause there are wild animals [ which may devour it ]. This 
oft-quoted saying appears three times in the Mahdbhdsya, 
namely in 1. 1. 39 ( vart. 16), 4. 1. 1 ( vart. 15 ), and 6. 1. 13 
(vart. 13 ), and this is probably the original source of it. I have 
met with it in two of Vacaspatimis'ra's works, as follows. In 
the Nyayavartiltatatpavyatlkcij, page 62: "fr 


" II Similarly, on page 441 of the same. In Blitf.- 
matl, page 54, we read: "t 

<=TT ^ 

i&ftfa ^TT^T 5nfvf?ft^ " II '-The same passage, with a 
good deal of the preceding context, reappears, without acknow- 
ledgment, in the Charvaka chapter of the Sarvadars'anasan- 
graha. We find the saying in a modified form in the Panca- 

63; " 

l" It appears in this 
form in Jivanmuktiviveka, ( page 8 ) also, and is there ascribed 
to Anandabodhacarya. See his snTM^TT^T page 21. Then we 
Jiave the well-known verse, Hitopades'a ii. 50: . 

Not even by the employment of a thousand different pro- 
cesses can S'ydmdka grain be made to germinate as rice. 
Vacaspatimis'ra was fond of this kind of saying. That above 
is from his Nydyavdrtikatdtparyattfed, page 55, and another 
of the same class occurs twice in the Bhdmati. On page 180 
( 1. 2. 18 ) " ^% 3TT3 crzrp: ffrdsfNMHa," and on page 704 
( 4. 1. 1. ) "ST ^r f*3fl*lia<Ll|^l ^rn^" II Compare, too, Manu 
ix. 40: 

SRTf[T% " II They all remind us of those sayings from another 
part of the Orient: " Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs 
of thistles?" and again, "Whatsoever a man soweth that shall 
he also reap." 

ST ft 

Not even a thousand blind men can protect a house from 
robbers. This is another of the sayings of Vacaspatimis'ra, and 
is found in his tika on Nydyaviirtika 1. 2. 2 ( the definition of 
sreqr ). To see the aptness of the saying it would be necessary 
to transcribe a lengthy passage of the bhdshya and vdrtika ; 
but the scholar can easily refer to them himself. 

T ff IJ 

The edge of a sword, even though very keen, is not employed 
to cut itself. The nyaya is found in this form in Syddvddaman- 
jarl, page 89, in combination with that which immediately 
follows; and Mr. Thomas, the Librarian at the India Office, tells 
me that he has met with the two together in Nagarjuna's ^rps- 
glPUntm k^ there the sword-nyaya takes the form of "q- 

ft 4sKcUmrareTRT ^JTTSTR t?rT *WTt vr^-" In Madhyamaka- 
vritti, page 62, it again occurs in conjunction with another 
simile: "srorfq 1 TRT d^lfayi^l ^i 

r| &c." For the latter, see Third 
Handful. Further instances will be found in TdtparyatlM, 
page 255; Nydyamakaranda, page 131; and others of a like 
nature in Venkatanatba's Sarvdrthas'lddhi, page 391. 

No young actor, however well-trained, is clever enough to get 
on his own shoulder. This is Mallisena's version of the nyaya, 
as cited in conjunction with the cognate one above. In Brah- 
masutrabhdsya 3. 3. 54, S'ankara quotes it as "jf % ^z: i%- 
/RT: dH^^^farrgqT^-" In the vartika on Taittirlyabhasya, 
page 108, Sures'vara puts it thus: " 

|| Other varieties are the following. " 

, Bhamatl 1. 3. 41 ( page 277 ); 

dakhddya, page 592; and, finally, "^ f| 
?^m^41 ^rrm", Vidydsciyari on Khandana, page 57. It 
will thus be seen that no two authors agree as to the form of 
the maxim ! 


ft II 

A lamp does not illuminate until it [ i. e. its light ] reaches 
the object to be illuminated. It therefore comes under the head 
of JTPsrejrffr, for which, and its opposite, see Nydyakandali, 
page 23. It occurs in the Nydyamanjari on 5. 1. 7 (page 624): 


Tdrkikaraha page 271:"^ 

i%" 11 Also in 

r." Then in Sarvarthasiddhi (on TattvamuJctd 
kalapa i. 32 ) we read: " 

;." Compare Nagar- 

juna's karika vij. 11: "anrr^ 1 5T=fm *ri% ^T f%^f ?W: I 

One person does not remember what another has seen. This 
is the first pada of Kusumdnjali i. 15, the whole verse being 
as follows: 

R u 

Professor Cowell translates thus: " One does not remember 
what another has seen; the body remains not one and the same 
from decay; there cannot be transference of impressions, and 
if you accept a non-momentary existence there is no other 
means." The karika, however, is hardly intelligible apart from 
the preceding context of which it is a sort of summing up. The 
nyaya did not, however, orginate with Udayana, since it is quoted 
in Vyasa's Yogabhasya iii. 14, and in Nydyabhdsya 1. 1. 10. It 
is found, too, in Syddvddamanjari, pages 61 and 154; also in 
Nyayamanjari, page 437, line 10. 


Not even a thousand blind travellers can discover the road 
[to be taken]. This is contained in Bhclmatl 1. 1. 5 (page 124), 
in the following passage:"^ % mv^MchM^ 

It is better to leave this untranslated. The 
is found in Vyasa's Yogabhdshya ii 24, as follows: 
cqu^^mi^i^fTi^Ki^Ki I *>MMI iri<4i*ru'^P:ft?T% I 


II O Q t nis Vacaspatimis'ra remarks: " a^ 
J^*NK^MHlq^?T% " II The nyaya, as given 
above, is found in the NydyavartiJcatdtparyafrlka, page 29: 

II See, too, Citsu- 

Idil ii. 26 ( Pandit, voL v. page 514 ) where reference is made to 
Yacaspati's use of the nyaya ; and the same objection is taken 
to it by S'riharsha in the Khandanakhandakhadya, page 354. 

Professor Venis tells me that the Benares pandits regard this 
as a shortened form of the RTSjilKM'HK'JMN (for which, see the 
First Handful of maxims), -and that it means "unduly exten- 
ding one's claim or one's position generally." Its equivalent in 
MarathI is qr^T i^Rtjf , which, Molesworth tells us, means " to 
establish one's self freely and fully : to extend one's power far 
and wide." He gives, as an example of its use. the MarathI 


proverb " ^51^ f^ft aft^ft vj ? ^ q^t," which is the equi- 
valent of our " Give him an inch and he'll take an ell." In the 
passages, however, in which I have met with the expression, it 
seems to imply a dogged adherence to a position in spite of pre- 
vious failure, and when there is little prospect of future success. 
Two passages in Upamitibhavaprapanca Katha pages 798 and 
907, seem to confirm this: 

II There are 

two other instances of it on pages 656, 657 of the same, and it 
occurs three times in the Nyciyamanjarl, as follows. On page 

On page 121 : " $ 

: II 

?TT%:" II O Q page 504: "f 

: I T^3 

II There is one instance 
of it in Khandanakhandalchadya ( page 31 ) also: ''q 1 ^ 

T," which is rendered by 

Prof. Ganganatha Jha: "Nor will you escape from this predi- 
cament by talcing the long step of assuming an infinity of 
different kinds of real existence." Indian Thought, page 17. 


Leaving the sweet morsel he licks his hand I It is found in 
Pancapddika, page 49, as follows : "g 

" n In Raghu- 
natha's list it appears as fqiit %^l M" %!%. We m y compare 
it with the saying "$tf 


The simile of a father's conforming to [the ways of] his little 
child. This is set forth as a model for the knower of Brahma, 
that, by a lowly and humble demeanour, he may attract 
the ignorant. It is thus explained in the Laukikanydya- 
sangraha : 

?** *i n 'T 

larger work the following passage is quoted by way of illustra- 


^ II 

II The "elder" 
is Vidyaranya, and the verses are Pancadas'l vn. 286-288. 

Pis'dcas should be answered in the Pis'dca language. 
This nyaya is found on pages 214 and 410 of Sarvarthasiddhi 
( on Tattvamuktakaldpa ii. 49 and iv. 13 ), in the first instance 
in conjunction with "argn^^ffr ^fe: "> with which it is clearly 
synonymous. See "z 

The simile of a stout cudgel Such a stick, hurled at a 
yelping cur, may at the same time strike and silence other dogs 
near it; and so the nyaya seems to be used somewhat in the 
sense of "Killing two birds with one stone." It is thus de- 
fined by Raghunatha: " qcpcnfeNtidft*m 



The simile is employed in this sense in Advaitabrakma,' 
siddhi, page 100: "q- $ft 

It is akin to gvi M +i g^ Pi ^ l^rer!^ which see in First Handful. 

The simile of a lamp. We have here another of the many 
lamp-illustrations. In Mahabliasya 1. 1. 49 ( vart. 4) an adlii- 
kara is said to be of three kinds, and in the first it is likened 
to a lamp in the following words: "c 

the opening part of 2. 1. 1, where the question is asked '%: tpf. 
nwrf%^r:)" the paribhdsa, and not the adhikfira, is 

likened to a lamp, in the same words as above. 

Nflges'a (in vol. iii. page 8 of the Uddyota} quotes the 
following verse: 

?nfrr ^tacrnj; i 

We find the same figure in Jaimini's sutra 11. 1. 60, which 
S'abara explains thus: "sr^qr ^pf^SM^ ^^RTTt ^TflorRT^r- 

In dealing with this 

adhikarana Madhava substitutes the figure of a single dancer 
amusing a number of spectators. See the srfesqrq- in Third 

This nyaya, which is quoted by Amaradasa in his tika on 
Vedantas'ikhamani, page 262, is apparently another form of 
the more concise m^srf^fcr which, as it occurs in the Yoga 
section of Sarvadars'anasangraha, is rendered by Prof. Cowell 



"Express negation." In a footnote ( on page 250 ) he explains it 
thus : " Where the negation is prominent it is called lyrasajya- 
pratishedha ; but where it is not prominent we have the pary- 
uddsa negation. In the former, the negative is connected with 
the verb: in the latter, it is generally compounded with some 
other word; as, for example, (a) 'Not a drum was heard, not a 
funeral note '. (b) ' Unwatched the garden bough shall sway '. 
The former corresponds to the logicians' atyantdbhdva, the 
latter to anyonydbhdva or bheda". 

In the Vacaspatyam the nyaya is quoted under 
as follows : "sTCTPT iwfrh *m*ll(lw)frl <MN<:MklM^: I 
TIT MlfllM^d ' ^1 

According to this, then, the meaning of the nyaya is "that 
which has been applied or asserted is subsequently withdrawn 
or denied." 

Both the forms of negation are contained in Mahabhdsya 
1. 4. 50 &c., in Vakyapadiya ii. 86, and in Sures'vara's large 
vartika 3. 9. 73. Verses defining the two are quoted on page 
214 (Chap, vii.) of the Sdhityadarpana, and renderings will be 
found on page 254 of Mr. Pramadadasa's translation. Compare 
Moles worth's definitions of the terms. 

The principle that whatever lias no result of its own, but is 
mentioned in connection with something else which has such 
a result, is subordinate to the latter. This is Dr. Thibaut's 
rendering of the nyaya as it occurs in Brahmasutrabhdshya, 
2. 1. 14 ( page 443 ), and he explains it thus in a footnote: 
"A Mimamsa principle. A sacrificial act, for instance, is in- 
dependent when a special result is assigned to it by the sacred 
texts ; an act which is enjoined without such a specification is 
merely auxiliary to another act." The source of the nyaya is 


S'abara 4.4.19, and Madhava applies it in 
tara 4. 3. 16 (sutra 37). I have met with it also in Nydya- 
vdrtikatdtparyafikd, page 178, line 2; and in Vivarana- 
prameyasanyraha, page 117, line 11; and page 147, line 9 
from bottom. 

The simile of the capture of a crane. Raghunath explains 
it thus: A man wishing to secure a crane puts butter on its 
head, which, when melted by the sun, goes into its eyes and 
blinds it, so that he can then take hold of it ! He clearly took 
this explanation from the Tattvadlpa/na, a commentary on the 
Pancapddikdvivarana ( itself a commentary ), and I subjoin a 
portion of each. Vivarana, page 283, line 4: 


:"|| On this the Dlpana, 

page 779, bottom line : " 

^T." Then follows his application of the 
nyaya. Both writers evidently regard it as an illustration of 
something ridiculous; and to me it recalls the nursery tradition 
that the way to catch a sparrow is to put salt on its tail ! 
Raghunatha, however, classes it with nyayas deprecating a 
roundabout way of doing a thing. Amongst these he gives the 
T, where a man whilst looking for a stick with 

which to kill a snake, comes upon an axe; but, instead of 

using that against the enemy, he goes out to cut a stick with it. 

In Vivaranaprameyasanyraha, page 262, line 9, we 

again find the 


The illustration of ivhispering in the ear of a deaf man. A 
good example is found in Upamitihlui'oaprapanca Kathd, page 

Compare the following from Nyayamanjari, page 405 : 

." Also the expression "^Rfc^ JTFHT^" m Naiskarmya,- 
siddhi iv. 21. For similes of a like kind, see auu^lic^rm^. 


The simile of a lamp in a vessel ivith many holes. Raghu- 
natha explains it as follows: 

frf" II The above is verse 4 of S'ankara's poem, to 
the exposition of which Sures'vara devotes 37 verses in his 

The illustration of the lowering of one part of a load [ and 
so easing one's burden]. This is found under Tantravd/rtika 
1. 3. 22 ( page 222 ): "frifcq&lsjMMTt 

Ganganatha Jha renders the passage thus: "When a certain 
conclusion to the contrary has been laid out in an exceptionally 


strong manner, if one proceeds to immediately point out the 
true theory, it involves a very hard work; and hence with a 
view to lighten this burden, the present sutra proceeds only to 
weaken the contrary view by throwing it open to doubt." 

Jayanta Bhatta reproduced this on page 419 of the Nydya- 
manjarl as follows: <( ^ T r^^i 


The illustration of the three Asuras, Bhftna, Bhdsa, and 
Dridha. See this explained under 

The simile of the bird Bhulinya. It is supposed to say "md 
stihasam," "don't do anything desperate", and then does 
desperate deeds itself ! The purport of the nyaya would 
therefore seem to be, "Practise what you preach." There are 
two references to this bird in Sablidparva. The first is in 
XLI. 18 (Bombay edition):"^ Jnwm%t ?m%r 3f =^ft 
JTFrft I JT^TW ^TT^f ygnft y$f&$W$Mvn" II This is explained by 
the second passage ( XLV. 27-32. ): "sm %tf 

^^ n 

i rsr ^TFH: ^T^T ^ra: PS^IIT; u ^ u ?rr 

Il^Tftr^r^ *TT 
II ^ II ^1 % 

u ^o u jw: srr 

l T% ^1^31% *r^n ^T:" u vi u 

the Calcutta edition of 1834, the chapters are XL and XLIII res- 
pectively. Raghunatha's remark on the simile is as follows ; 


" For the following 
interesting example of the application of this nyaya (though 
the bird is not mentioned by name ) I am indebted to my 
friend Mr. C. H. Tawney, C. I. E. It is found on pages 138-9 
of the Paris'istaparvan:" 3 


u ?\j^ 

HT:" u i\ivs u 

An interesting conversation on the inconsistency of not practis- 
ing what one preaches ( though not in connection with this 
nyaya ) is found also in the Bhagavata Purana x. 33. 27-40. 

The simile of the reflections of a madman. The story con- 
nected with this is told in the following passage of Atmatattva- 
viveka, page 64:" d^ 

Pancatantra V. 41 ( Indischc Spruclus 1221 }. 


27ie supposition that the light of a gem is itself the gem. 
This follows Mr. A. E. Gough's explanation of a slightly 
varied form of the nyaya which is found in the Bauddha 
section of Sarvadars'anasangraha. He adds that, in this case, 
"we may yet handle the gem, because it underlies the light, 
while, if we were to take nacre for silver, we could not lay 
hold of any silver." The correctness of this view is established 
by an important passage at the beginning of Pancadas'l ix, 
which treats of sq^ as a means of arriving at a right know- 
ledge of Brahman. Such meditation, being directed towards 
Brahman with qualities, is of course erroneous, inasmuch as 
that Impersonality has no qualities; but it nevertheless leads to 
the underlying nirgumot Brahman, just as the mistaken notion 
regarding the sparkle of the gem leads to the discovery of the 
gem itself. This is styled fHife.-a-H, an error which has a 
corresponding reality underlying it. To mistake the distant 
shining of a lamp through the keyhole of a door for a gem, is 
an illustration of fe*Hif%$RT, an error entirely devoid of an 
underlying reality. The passage is as follows: " 

: \\ ^ \ 

^RT ^^ II ^ II The commentator, 
Ramakrishna, ascribes verses 2-5 to a vcirtika; whilst Citsukha 
Muni, in his comment on verse 2 which is quoted in the 
Nydyamakaranda ( page 148 ), names Dharmakirti as its 
author. This is not improbable; for Dharmakirti is known to 
have composed vartikas on the works of Diguaga, a famous 
Buddhist writer of the sixth century ( See Mr. K. B. Pathak's 
paper "On the authorship of the Nyayabindu" ). In Nyaya- 
manyart, pages 24 (line 1 ), 33 ( line 4 from bottom ), and 158 


( line 10), the nyaya is found: as ^fuiMUmfui^fe^. Then on 
page 308 ( line 9 from bottom ) there is the following passage 
which corresponds with the extract from Pancadas'l, namely: 

lift^T JHTTTf 4-J (ur^^l McfdJfM: I ^ rj 

The nyaya occurs again on page 317. 

Other references to it are S'alika, page 22, line 4; Nyilya- 
Tcandall, page 190; Atmatattvaviveka, page 45; and Tarkikn- 
raksd, page 16. 

The illustration afforded by the sale ofyems. It is intended 
to teach that, in disposing of precious stones, one who under- 
stands their value will derive greater advantage than one who 
is without that knowledge. This would undoubtedly be the 
case if the seller were a S'abara and the buyer a dealer in 
gems ! The illustration is S'ankara s, and is used by him in 
his exposition of CTihandogya 1. 1. 10, which sets forth the 
value of an intelligent use of the syllable Om. The passage 
is as follows : " ^^ft f^ft ^Itat^ ^ *TJ * ^? I ^TRT 5 %TT 
mfa^i =* I ^ f^PTT ?Rt%. -^ BfrforR *R%." An objector 
here urges that the result of an action does not depend upon 
the intelligence of the performer of it, but on the due perfor- 
ance of the act itself, and he supports his view with the follow- 
ing homely illustration " 

The Sidhantin disallows this, and gives another 
illustration : " 

The nyaya is quoted, in a slightly different form, by 
Anandagiri in his comment on BrahmasutraWidsya 3. 3. 42 ; 
and again, by Amalananda, in the same connection, in company 
with the drug-illustration. 


Mistaking bamboos for snakes on the part of tliose whose 
eyes have been smeared with the fat of frogs. This curious 
illustration, taken from S'lokavdrtika, page 520, is found in the 
following passage of Tatparyatllc/a, page 314 : " q- 

:" II 

The S'lokavdrtika passage containing the nyaya forms the 
second quotation in the following excerpt from Sarvdrthasiddhi 
on Tattvamuktdkaldpa ii. 64 : " 

gf^^Tfti " || Another instance of 

the nyaya is to be found in Parimala, page 43, line 9- 

: II 

The simile drawn from fish. It is used to illustrate the 
oppression of the weak by the strong. In Raghunathavarman's 
list, it follows the <Wlm4-d-m^, and he explains it thus: 


J I ^T 5THT 

d^ ' II T 

3RT fa^i?UI?miWfft 5RTF7T4: " II The verse quoted here is 


Yogavdsistha 5. 37. 7. There is a good example of the usage of 
this nyaya in ^Kdmandaklya-Nltisdra ii. 40 which reads 
thus: "m^miftud^l SHT^T fw?N<:4i: I ^31^1% Tf^Rft Jfl^fi 
PZHT: M<4<&" II My friend Mr. Tawney has given me a reference 
to the commentary on i. 13 of the same work, and also to 
Kathdsaritsdgara cii. 63 which I here subjoin together with 
his translation ( voL ii, page 390): "mt$HKM4> f%l%^r sfrrsfo 
^-H^cTi | *F3RT^: fj|: ^ff ^k^^l^^K^ " II " There is no 
race in the world without a king; I do believe the gods 
introduced the magical name among men in their alarm, 
fearing that otherwise the strong would devour the weak, as 
great fishes eat the little. " Kulluka gives "^ 4< 

as a various reading in the second line of Manu vii. 20, and 
adds " STsT j<A^Hl ^^c-Mk^^R^ *Tc^J|^ ^ ^Tf^JrE^" II 
For this, also, I am indebted to Mr. Tawney. 

One who has been seized in order to be put to death, 
[ gladly] agrees to the amputation of a limb [as an alternative} 
The nearest approach to this nyaya of Raghunatha's is found 
in the following verse of Bodhicarydvatdra ( vi. 72 ) : 

On the former part of this, the commentator says: 

:<a )H (rt 


The bee that knows the excellence of the perfume of jasmine 
cares not for darbha grass. This is found in the following 
passage of Upamitibliavaprapancd Kathd, page 1031 : 

ii<rii nc 

The simile of a grain of soot in a heap of spotted beans. 
Perhaps akin to a needle in a haystack. It seems to have 
originated in that very ancient drama the Mricchakatika where 
it is found ( on page 40 ) in the following Prakrit passage : 

In vol. ix of the Harvard Oriental Series, Dr. A. W. Ryder ( in 
imitation of the ^rarO renders it thus: "But mashter, it's 
pitch dark and it's like hunting for a grain of soot in a pile 
of shpotted beans. Now you shee Vasantasena and now 
you don't " 

The nyaya is quoted in Uday ana's Kirandvali, page 79 : 

Isl^" ? and again on 

pages 208 and 451 of Venkatanatha's Sarvdrthasiddhi, the 
latter being as follows : "^SIT muufl ?T*ft *T*TT 


If Mithila should be in flames nothing of mine would be 
burnt up. This is the second line of a verse in S'dntiparva t 
chapter 178, the first line being "3^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
f%PT". It is used to indicate the freedom from anxiety of one 
who has nothing to lose ; like Juvenal's "Cantabit vacuus coram 
latrone viator." S'ankara quotes the phrase in his exposition 
of the words "^ ^r ^ sft*Rf |" in Brihaddranyakopanishad 
1. 4. 15: 

?T ^T ^URT f4>^^l^ ?TS^ " II It appears also 
in the following verse of the Khandanakliandakhadya, page 

Enquiring as to a suitable date for the shaving of one's 
head when one has already performed that ceremony ! It 
occurs in the following passage of the Nydyamanjari, page 


" II This saying was explained 
to me by my learned friend the Principal of the Government 
Sanskrit College at Benares. It is similar to two given by 
Raghunathavarman, namely, "^% ^ 1% SfT&r^j" and "T 1% 
f%^TfR?TR ^TT^gT 1%^." See also ^^CT ?r^rw^En in the 
Third Handful. 


The simile of [ molten ] copper poured into a mould [ and 
assuming its shape ]. Raghunathavarman expounds it thus: 

This verse is S'ankar- 
acarya's Upades'asahasrl xiv. 3, on which Ramatirtha com- 
ments as follows : 

I may add that the nyaya which immediately follows this 
in Raghunatha's list, namely srsfSjafan^FT, ' 1B based on the 
very next verse of the Upades'asahasrl ["sr^f^t ^T *W\ 5^: 
&c."], and his explanatory remarks are taken verbatim from 
Ramatirtha's comment. The nyaya we are now examining ap- 
pears also in Brahmasutrabhashya 1. 1. 12 in the expres- 
sion "j^rTMp^Th^ddliJlRMld^N^", and in Taittirwjavdrtika 
( p. 94): 

rJ Cl I 


Looking for the production of germs when the seed has been 
eaten by a mouse ! This seems to belong to the same category 
as the efritb^rdMflSTT. It occurs in the Bauddha chapter of 
Sarvadars'anasangraha ( page 14 of Jivananda's edn. ). The 
whole passage is too long for quotation, but the nyaya-por- 
tion is as follows : 

" - || 



Even a [ cowardly ] crow can assume the bearing of an 
3, when it comes upon a dead lizard ! This is the first 
line of Bodhicary avatar a vii. 72, the second being 

How true to nature this is ! 

He who causes a thing to be done by another is himself the 
real doer of it. "Facit per alium facit per se". This nyaya 
is of common occurrence. There is a good instance of it in 
Anandagiri's comment on Bralimasutrabhdshya 1. 2. 11. Ex- 
plaining Mundaka Upanishad 3. 1. 1, S'ankara says: " 


which Anandagiri remarks : 

Hi'^Rfrt'Oid I Ts DKIICI <& f)<l 

:" II See also Tatparyatika, page 187, line 1. 


Anything that has been made is .non-eternal. In other 
words, that which has a beginning has also an end; except of 
course, the Naiyayika's jr^HT^rraTj which has a beginning but no 
end ! The nyaya is found in the Nydyabindu, page 108, and 
its converse, ^d.McM d<t>dM%? on page 116. The following are 
additional examples of its use. Vivaranaprameyasangrahai 
page 240, line 3 : "sr 

lfa" II Nyayavartikatatparyattfca, page 187 
line 8 from bottom :~"i 

|| Part of this latter passage is quoted in 

Citsukhi i. 23 ( Pandit, vol. V. page 27 ). 

By what means can a donkey overtake [so as to bring back] 
that which has been carried off long before by [one mounted on] 
a horse? This phrase, borrowed from Tantravdrtika ( page 
730 ), is introduced into the Nyayamanjarl ( page 262 ) in the 
course of a discussion on the relative value and authority of 
S'ruti and Smriti, in the following verse : 

According to Kumarila, a man who has accepted the teach- 
ing of s'ruti will not allow it to be upset by a contradictory 
smriti, and vice versa. This is expressed, as follows, in two 
passages of Tantravdrtika 1. 3. 3. (as pointed out by the editor 
of Nyayamanjarl ): "^ 


fai<i ra<it T: 

f| nfli: Ml^^ld" II Page 92. Again on page 
94 : "zfif f T^f snWT^^T t*4in*i c ' e M 4^*i in n^i>iin^n^ic43+ill^' 



This nyaya is found in Raghunatha's larger work, the 
LaukikanydyaratndJcar ( India Office MS. 582, page 185 a ), 
and on page 6 of S'ikhdmanitilca. Prof. Co well, however 
quoted and explained it in a footnote to his translation of 
Haridasa's comment on Kusumdnjali v. 4. I quote a portion 
of the comment to elucidate the note. "You may not say 
that ' the volition of the conscious agent is the cause in effort 
only, and not in all action generally,' because even though a 
particular kind of volition may be the cause in the case of 
effort, this does not preclude volition generally; otherwise, 
because a particular seed is the cause of a particular shoot, it 
would follow that seeds in general [ i. e. the class, seed ] could 
not be the causes of shoots in general" The following is the 
footnote. "This argument depends on two principles,-a. The 
same relation of cause and effect which exists between parti- 
culars, exists lilcewise between their respective classes, 'qftjlmt; 
fcKJ4KUi*JN<sicUWMqU[V and b - the general causes only produce 
their effects wlien conjoined with the particular causes, 'grcrFT- 

.' Thus Archbishop Whately 

has made a book on Logic, man can therefore make logical 
books ; only in each particular case we require the concurrents, 
education, leisure &c." 

,4s is the YaJcsha so should be tlie offering. This is included 
in Raghunatha's list, but without any definition of its meaning. 
It is embedded, however, in the philosophical part of his 


treatise, as follows:" 

15% ft * *muin 

I have found the nyaya in use in the following works of 
Vacaspatimis'ra's and of Jayanta Bhatta. In the Nydyavdrtika- 
tatparyatika, page 115 : "grf^RT^RT^^rr *& ufal^ ?&- 
fa I Tfr fT f ^TRT?^Toi: " Also in the Bha- 

matl 4. 1. 15 (page 723):"^ 
iMm^^c^t I 3ii 

" II Th0 two which follow 

are from the Nyayamanjari. Page 54 : 


On page 637 : 

It occurs also in S'rldhara's Nydyakandali, page 144, line 13, 
and, finally, in the vritti on Tattvamuktdkalapa ii. 49, where 
it is immediately followed by " 

The general sense of the nyaya would seem to be 
that of " tit-for-tat ", " a Roland for an Oliver." 


Conveying the meaning actually expressed [ and therefore 
needing nothing to supplement it ]. Kumarila puts it thus in 
Tantravdrtika 3. 5. 19 : "sjj^re f^PT: I 3 *rf% <NEte<skft 

^Ng-gM^N ^sq-:" II Compare, too, the latter part of S'abara 
on 2. 3. 2. It occurs twice in Bhdmati. On 4. 1. 4 ( page 710 ) 
we read : 

Again on 4. 3. 4 (page 742 ) as follows:"^ 

U Anandagiri, too, quotes the nyaya in 

his comment on 4. 3. 4. He says: " 

: I 'IT^^R' qi^w^wirt 

II ^ is found also in 

the philosophical portion of Laukikanydyasangraha (L 0. 
MS. 1031, page 45 6. ): "^ 3 

" II See, too, Nages'a's Uddyota, voL i. p. 574. 

The illustration of the king's son [ who was brought up ] as a 
hunter. The story is that a young prince, abandoned by his 
parents at his birth, was adopted by a hunter and brought up 
as his own son. The boy remained in ignorance of his real 
origin until he was discovered by a kindly person and restored 
to his rightful position. S'ankaracarya seems to have been the 
first to utilize the tale, and he gives it as follows in his bhasya 
on BrihaddranyaJcopanisad 2. 1. 20 : 


Sure'svara refers to this several times in his large Vartika. 
On page 71 we read: "ds>lfc^lEUna<4 nvranHtifoa; I ^f- 
^r: ^fsn^ s^n^mw to^." Then, on pages 970-2, he 
devotes ten verses to the nyaya, and returns to it once more on 
page 1845. 

The author of the Siddhantalea'a ( on page 20 ) cites it as 
the "wnvi^^cntidiM^IHIilH?" and & is reproduced, in a 
slightly different form, in the comments of Aniruddha and 
Vedantin Mahadeo on Sdnkhyasutra iv. 1. See also Bhdmat'l 
1. 4. 22. Kaghunathavarinan links with the above the i^+jq- 
53TPT which tells of a lion's cub being brought up as a ram; but 
I have not yet met with it elsewhere. 

The simile of the manner of entering a royal city. It ia 
found in both of Raghunathavarma's treatises, but the following 
explanation of it is taken from the Vdcaspatyam: "fa^<Ad^l 

Raghunatha points out that we do not grasp the meaning of a 
long sentence as a whole, but that the sense of each word 
enters the mind singly, on the principle of 


I have met with the nyaya in Nages'a Bhatta's comment on 
Kaiyata. In Mahabhdsya 1. 1. 58 ( under vartika 1 ) we read 


Kaiyata remarks on this : 
H^^r:"and on these worcs 

Nages'a says 

The passages here quoted will be found on pages 389 and 390 
of vol. L of the edition of Mahdbhasya with the Pradlpa and 
Uddyota, published at the Nirnayasagar Press in 1908. 

This is the second line of a verse on page 372 of the Tantra- 
vartika. To make it intelligible I quote a portion of the con- 
text as interpreted by Professor Ganganatha Jha in his trans- 
lation ( page 511, last line ) :- " It has been urged above that, 
if the Apurva inhere in the Soul, then it becomes only an end 
in itself desirable by men. But this does not affect our position; 
because one thing becomes subservient to another only when its 
sole use lies in the serving of some purpose of this latter, and 
not merely when it rests in this ; for instance, though the Red 
Dye is carried by the camel ( and as such rests upon its back ), 
yet it serves the pwrposes of the Icing ( for whom it is carried )." 

The cvrculation within the body of poison which has 
entered the blood. Used as a warning against the beginnings of 
evil in however small a degrea The figure is found in 
Bodhicaryavatara vii. 69 : 



The commentary runs thus : " 


mc<T*r ^rhi;." Compare "The beginning of strife is as 
when one letteth out water; therefore leave off contention be- 
fore there be quarrelling." 

The illustration of wood thrown into the salt-lake [ or mine ] 
Ruma. Tne Medinl kos'a explains Ruma as " iVfeT^cjun^ ", 
and it is said to be situated near Ajmere. The tradition is that 
anything thrown in there becomes saline itself. The earliest 
mention of Ruma, with which I am acquainted, is in the 
following verse of Tantravdrtika ( page 132 ) : 

Kumarila seems here to regard Ruma as the region in which 
the salt mines are situated, rather than as the mine itself; and 
this may give some ground for the footnote by the editor of the 
Medinl, ( Calcutta, 1869 ) where he defines 

In his translation of the above verse, 
Prof. Ganganatha Jha omits Ruma altogether. He says : 
"Just as in the case of salt mines, and in that of Meru the land 
of bright gold, whatever is produced in them, becomes salt and 
gold (respectively), so also in the case of the inner satisfaction 
of one who knows the Veda (which imparts Vedic authority 
to all that it touches)." 


We have an example of the nyaya in Vacaspati Mis'ra's 
comment on TogasutraVidsya iv. 14. The sutra is "qr^Jrw^gr- 
on which he says : " 

^Idd^M^Ml =3 5TcfT7 ^T." Tnen Venkatanatha uses the illus- 
tration in Tattvamuktdkaldpa v. 28, and in his vritti thereon, 
as follows : 

In the vritti on ii. 1 of the 

same, the author says : " gu^iTi ^ ^^ I 

Popular usage overpowers etymological meaning. There is 

a capital illustration of this in the Vivaranaprameyasangralia 

.3 ( pages 134, 135 ) where Badarayana's first sutra is under 

discussion : " Ql 3)144141*^ RNft ^&'- \ 

cqil^m l*l c l*j Si 

s[if 5 f- 

II Tne following verse is quoted in the 
Nydyapradipa, a commentary on Tarkabhasa, page 5 : 

II The editor cites a very modern author who as- 
cribes the verse to Kumarila. See also Pancapadikavivarana, 
pp. 132-3; Vedantakalpataru, p. 207; and Anandagiri on 
Brahmasutrabhashya, 1, 3. 42. 


The illustration of the sketch of the Bos Gavaeus ( Gayal ). 
Raghunathavarma explains and applies it as follows: 

on page 457 of Vacaspatimis'ra's Tdtparyatlkd, and again on 
page 363 of Veddntakalpataruparimala. The latter passage 
reads thus : "3 grfeU 

A third example is found in the following extract from 
Kaiyata on Mahdbhasya 1. 1. 46 : rt 

See also S'rlbhdsya 

page 322, and page 77 of Dr. Thibaut's translation. 

[The existence, or nature, of] an object is established by 
means of some distinguishing characteristic, and by a 
recognized form of proof [ such as sense- perception, scripture 

&c. ]. "TOT TFmTciifyggrfrT sr^sfrjRn^R ^ ^^fe(lr; ' ' u Or, 

just as the wonders of creation establish the "eternal power 
and Godhead " of the invisible Deity, to which Scripture also 
bears testimony. 

Raghunathavarma quotes the nyaya in the following passage 
on page 28 of the Benares edition of his work: 


Commenting on the opening verse of the Veddntaparibhdsd, 
the author of the S'ikhdmani says: "^5 sTfrfBt 

Amaradasa's tlka on this begins as 
follows ; 

A plough is existence. That is, it is a means of existence; 
cause and effect being here identified as in STTg^H: ^ e n y^y a 
is found in Sures'vara's Sambandhavdrtika, page 9, as fol- 
lows : q 1 ^ iThi ^ ij i 

q-TT." On which Anandagiri remarks: " 

We may 

compare with this the phrase "The plough supports the bullocks", 
which occurs in Brahmasutrabhdsliya 3. 2. 4 : "zr?IT ST^J TRT- 

The simile of the measuring out [ or distribution ] of beans 
by the daughter-in-law. I am much indebted to Mr. Govind 
Das, Honorary Magistrate of Benares, for giving me what 
seems to be the real meaning of this hitherto-puzzling nyaya. 
He believes it to be the adaptation of a Maithila proverb with 
which the following story is connected. "A very miserly old 
Brahman used to have a fistful of grain given daily by his wife 
to every beggar who came to the door. The old man having 


married his son, the idea struck him that if he got his daughter- 
in-law to do the distribution instead of his old and ugly wife, 
the smaller fist would measure out a smaller quantity of grain ! 
But, unluckily for him, the girl was very beautiful, so even 
persons who were not in need began to drop in, disguised as 
beggars, in order to admire her ! The result was that, while 
each measure was less, the total amount given away was very 
much more." 

It occurs in the AtmatattvaviveJca, page 87, line 12, as follows:- 

3^1*11 a c h*Hi<<* II 

The maxim of the destroyer and its prey. Used of two 
things which cannot exist together. It occurs in Taittiriya- 
vartika 2. 1. 66 ( page 53 ) : " jrf^TW ^[TT % f^nxrf^tf^R: I 
iT^T^TR ^MlkT 3Miv|idbWHl." Anandagiri explains it 
thus : "?T*IH^-*)i4M*lfi 


". See also Pras'astapada's Vais'e- 
shikabhdshya, pages 112, 113; and the latter part of Citsuklil 
iv. 4. ( Pandit vi. 390 ). Compare the en^crm^N of Nais* 
Jcarmyasiddhi I 55 (qmaUunft;), and iii. 85 

The illustration of a lion in a forest. Used of things which 
mutually aid or protect each other. This, and the jg4i*M<N 
which is of similar import, occur together in the following 


passage of the Veddntakalpataruparimala ( page 100 ) : 

Similarly, the lake shelters the alligator, and the 
alligator protects the lake. There is another reference to the 
on page 627 of the same work : { %SIT ? 

^ta:" || The source of the nyaya is doubtless Udyogaparva 
xxxvii. 46, for the reference to which I am indebted to Professor 
Dr. R. Pischel. The verse is as follows : 

T tjnigii<4n <<iwi^<iwi T 

Compare also verse 64 of the same. 

The maxim of the discussion of matters with a view to 
obtaining a husband [ for one's daughter ]. It is thus explain- 
ed by Raghunathavarman :--"*flfeijfttm 

:" || I have met with the expression twice in the Panca- 
padika ( pages 72, 73 ), in a description of the erroneous views 
of common people ( such as the Laukayatikas &c. ) in regard to 
the atman. The passages are as follows: "t^foP^qiu^ -^jrMlfc 

II Again: "zff 

I *T 

It needs a more intimate acquaintance with 3^^ than we 
Westerns possess in order to grasp the full significance of the 
nyaya, and I must confess to a certain amount of haziness as to 


its exact sense in the passages here cited. In a later part of 
his treatise Raghunatha gives us the maxim "grfjfoTf^id^iMJJl" 
appended to which is the remark ' 

rrssrw." The way in which he applies the latter 
will be apparent from the following excerpt from the philoso- 
phical portion of his work : "^ 

It Compare Kumarila's 

| qf* ^^rt ifr* rr^Tr^FTftfcRci:" II Tantravdrtika, 
page 169-70. Prof. Ganganatha Jha points out that if the 
would-be bridegroom was really of the same gotra, it would 
make the marriage impossible ! 

Retaining possession of a cow after it has been sold to 
some one else. This illegality is dealt with by Narada and 
Yajnavalkya in the " f^^lWM^MM^ui^", "The non-delivery 
of a sold chattel." In chapter viii. 1, the former defines it 
thus : 

The latter lays down the law on the subject in chapter ii. 
254-8. Udayana's application of the above in Atmatattvavivelca, 
page 58, is as follows : 


The drift of this is not very clear. 


The illustration of the shaking of a tree. A man is supposed 
to be up a tree whilst others are standing below it. One of the 
latter points to a particular branch which he wishes to be 
shaken, and the others point out other branches for the same 
purpose ; so the man shakes the whole tree at once and thus 
satisfies every body by the one effort ! Raghunatha applies this 
in the following way: "?r%P*r 


larger work, Kaghunatha says that the simile is also found as 
and in this form I have met with it in Maha- 

bhasya, vol. i page 23 ( bottom ), " 
Also in 6. 1. 1 (vart. 13). 

Running away through fear of a scorpion, he falls into the 
jaivs of a poisonous snake! Avoiding Scylla, he falls into 
Charybdis ! The nyaya occurs in the following passage of the 
Nyayavartikatdtparyattfca, page 53: " 

II Ifc is found also in Kusumanjali 
ii. 3 ( page 328 ), in Vidvanmandana, page 4, and in Nydya- 
makaranda, page 223. Of somewhat similar import is the 

", which see. 

For this see the 


The maxim of the make and the mungoose. The well- 
known innate antipathy of these two for one another ( Pdnini 
2. 4. 9. ) is a commonly-used illustration of inherent opposition 
between two things. Mr. Tawney has reminded me of the 
story in Panchatantra V. 2. which speaks of the enmity 
between them in the following words : 

i; $dclHl" II The nyaya is employed by Udayana 
in Atmatattvavivelca, page 53, as follows : " 
In ^ 

M II It is more commonly known as 

The simile of the [ apparently simultaneous ] piercing [ with 
a needle] of one hundred lotus leaves. It is found under 
the figure <Hij^ in Euvalayananda, in connection with the 
following example : 



In the Sahityadarpana, also, we have the same idea some- 
what differently expressed in the description of 

The following is the passage ( on page 102 ) with Mr. Pramada- 
dasa Mitra's translation :- 


|| " Now, the perception of the 
suggested, caused as it is by, and hence succeeding, the percep- 
tion of the Accessories &c., has necessarily a process, but from 
its quickness it is not perceived, like the process of the appa- 
rently simultaneous piercing through of a hundred lotus leaves 
placed one upon another." The expression " 

is used by Aniruddha in his comment on Sdnkhyasutra 
il 32 ; and Dr. Garbe thinks that he took it from the Sdhitya- 
darpana. See his Preface to the Sdnkhyasutravritti. There 
are two examples of this nyaya in S'rldhara's Nydyakandcdi. 
On page 23 : " 


snrt f 3 srren* *rVnmV The 
other is on page 158. 

A much older example is found in S'lokavdrtika, page 311 
( verse 157 ), to which I append Mr. Ganganatha Jha's transla- 
tion: "^ttl^MM^II^rh ^JSpr^T^tS^ ?TCT f: I ^8f^3 *^ ^ : 
M^M^^Irl WR." "You have brought forward the case of the 
lamp and the light emitted by it, as an instance of the simul- 
taneity of the cause and the effect But in this case also, there 
is a minute point of time ( intervening between the appearance 
of the lamp and that of the light), though this is imperceptible ; 
just as is the case with the piercing (with a needle) of the 
hundred petals of the lotus." Professor Jacobi has kindly 
pointed out an instance of it in Nydyavartika, page 37, in the 
form <jcM^^^Maiif^il<^^i from which, perhaps, Aniruddha 
took the nyaya rather than from the very modern Sdhitya- 
darpana. The same expression ^M.^^id^fd^'J--!^ i g found 
in the Jaina work Syddvddamanjarl ( page 92 ). Besides these, 
I have met with the nyaya in TdtparyatlJcd, page 334, line 2 
(in the form ^ft^d<^lui\Tl^HM^^d^%^^ ); in Nyaya- 
manjarl, page 498 (as ^^^mij^McbTcb>t^^<^^^^); in 
Tarkabhdsdtlkd, page 24; in Tdrkikaraksdttkd, page 126 (as 
an(i in Citsukhl ii 9 


Fifty [is contained] in a hundred. The greater includes 
the less. In the Vdcaspatyam the nyaya is thus defined : 

STfT%:" II I have met with it only in the Ve~ 
ddntakalpataru, page 121, line 12, where a highly technical pas- 
sage from S'abara 6. 1. 43 is discussed, regarding the pronounce- 
ment of the names of Pravaras at new and full moon sacrifices. 
A reference to Kunte's M^fcfardPlW, page 1776, would 
throw light on this dark passage. 

3llUirM^|<qi (I 

The simile of perfuming a dead body. For the application 
d illustration see ammflfrHm. 

The simile of the moon upon a lough. Molesworth defines 
it thus : "A Sanskrit phrase adduced as a simile or an illustra- 
tion when an object seen or a matter debated has its position or 
relation assigned to it as at, on, in consistency with &c. a parti- 
cular object or matter, simply from the appearance of conti- 
guity or connection which, under one line of view or one train 
of reasoning, it .ordinarily presents ; whilst actually and truly 
it is remote from it so widely as to preclude altogether affirma- 
tion of connection. We say the sun sinks in the ocean by 
the same law as we say the moon is upon a bough of a tree, 
speaking in both cases from the appearance presented." It is 
thus akin to the ar^rereftM^M^n. The following example is 
found in Taitiriyabhdshyavartika 2. 1. 232 (page 88): 
' sftar M&WJ^N^ I (fc*l*T &Uii*ta Jddlfe an? 
And in Vivaranaprameyasangraha, page 202, we 

read : *t*q^ 5% J^T^^T^SiJT iiVt> r 

" II 

To do a %ingr once -is sufficient to satisfy the demands of 
the S'dstra. The nyaya is found in Mahabhd$ya 6. 1. 84 
( vart. 4 ), 108 ( vart. 3 ), and in 6. 4. 104 ( vart. 3 ). Also in 
S'abara 11. 1. 28, 35; and 12. 3, 10. It seems to resemble. the 
Marathi phrase qimi^dl, which Molesworth thus defines : "To 
be enough indeed for the supplying, serving, or fulfilling of any 
matter or point required by the S'astra, but without excess 
beyond; to exist in just sufficient quantity, or to be performed 
with just sufficient definiteness of action, as to warrant the 
name or designation borne, and to preclude disallowal of its 
existence or its performance; to be enough to swear by." The 
Sanskrit phrase occurs also in Vivaranaprameyasangraha, 
page 154 ( line 2 from bottom ) : " q 

See too Bhamatl 4. 1. 12, and compare 

A woman who has fallen once need veil her face no more. 
This occurs in Tantravartika, pages 703, 704, in the course of 
the discussion (under 3. 1. 12) of the meaning of the expression 
" snFrarr %T^4^I^^I *fhr J^mflr". On page 703 we read : 

The nyaya is quoted by 
Parthasarathi in S'astradipika 1. 4. 4 (page 177, line 6 from 
bottom ), while discussing the subject of words like Agnihotra 
&c., as the names of sacrifices. 


Like produces like. Jayanta Bhatta denies that this is a 
fixed principle, on the ground that scorpions are produced from 
cowdung. He puts it thus (page 46G ): 

This "old wives' fable" regarding the scorpion was deeply 
rooted in the Indian mind ! It is found in Mahdbhasya, 1. 4. 30, 
and is used as an illustration by S'ankaracarya in his bhasya 
on Brahmasutra 2. 1. 6. Ramanuja followed suit. Udayana, 
too, has it in his vritti on Kusumdnjali ii. 2, and the com- 
mentator Haridasa remarks that a scorpion can be produced 
from cowdung as well as from a scorpion. 

Thanks, however, to the now well-established Law of 
Biogenesis, we are better informed at the present time. To 
quote Henry Drummond: "It is now recognized on every 
hand that Life can only come from the touch of Life. Huxley 
categorically announces that the doctrine of Biogenesis, or life 
only from life, is 'victorious along the whole line at the present 
day.' And even whilst confessing that he wishes the evidence 
were the other way, Tyndall is compelled to say, ' I affirm that 
no shred of trustworthy experimental testimony exists to 
prove that life in our day has ever appeared independently of 
antecedent life'." 


When there is doubt reason comes into play. This is found in 
Jnanottama's comment on Naiskarmyasiddhi iv. 8. He says : 



Akin to this is the nyaya " 
which is found in the earlier part of 
the same work ( namely in the comment on i. 29 ), and which 
Raghunatha expounds thus in his smaller work: " 

* II 

When the loss of all is intending, a wise man wiU give 
up half [ if by so doing he can save the other half ]. It occurs 
twice in the Pancatantra, namely in iv. 27, and v. 42, as 
follows : 

In the second passage, the final word is ^:^f :. See Dr. 
Biihler's note on ^ c i|7l 3T&. The first half of this couplet is 
quoted in Kumarila's Tantravcirtika, page 91, bub there the 
reading is nvq 1 . 

No cognition is erroneous in respect of a thing as 
of certain properties ; but there may be error in regard to the 
exact form of the thing. For example, a man sees a glittering- 
object on the ground, and supposes it to be silver ; but it turns 
out to be nacre and not silver. There is no mistake in his 
cognition of the shining object, but his conception of the nature 
of the object is erroneous. The nyaya is found in Citsukhl 

ii. 18 (The Pandit, vol. v. page 496):"^ ^ 

Underlying the words ' 

:" II on P a S e 25 of the Saptapadarthi, we find the 
following comment : " 

Another interesting example is to be found in Tattvamuktcl- 
kcdapa iv. 104. I subjoin the second half of the verse and 
a portion of the author's own vritti on it : 


On page 403 of Vidyasagara's tlka on Khandanakliandakha- 
dycL the nyaya is ascribed to ^rter^ftaJR. I would commend to 
students a helpful note ( No 34 ) at the end of Professor M. N. 
Dvivedi's edition of the Tarkakaumudi, as bearing on the 
principle enunciated in this nyaya. 

In this contracted form the nyaya is quoted by the author of 
the Vcdantapcwibhasa, (chapter vii, page 411 ); in its entirety 


it reads thus : "uftM f| ftfaftwr 
jjmjsfcmd:" \\ The following is Mr. Arthur Venis' rendering of 
it ( in The Pandit, vol. vii. page 460 ) : "An affirmation or a 
negation, when made of a subject together with its predicate ) 
applies to the predicate if a bar exists to the affirmation or 
negation being attached to the subject". An extract from 
Rational Refutation of Hindu philosophical Systems (page 
232 ) may tend to elucidate the above. "When the Vediintins 
give to intelligence appropriated to the internal organ the name 
of subject of right notion, we are to understand, that the 
character which they ascribe to intelligence associated with the 
internal organ, really belongs to that organ. They have a 
maxim,-which all the other Systems subscribe to,-that 'An 
affirmation, or a negation, when predicated of anything together 
with its associate, if debarred from the object substantive, is 
to be referred to the object adjective'. In their opinion, the 
quality of being a cognizer cannot be assigned to the soul, and, 
consequently, is debarred from it." 

The nyaya is found in Tdtparyatikd, page 31, line 5, and in 
AtmatattvaviveJca, page 72, line 3 from bottom; but, in both 
cases, without the words "fc$|u| ^r% *TRf." It is quoted, too, 
in Laulcikanyayasangraha, page G9, line 15. 

TJiough possessing ten sons the mother-donkey carries the 
load ! This evidently well-known saying, taken from Tantra- 
vdrtiJca, page 807, is found in Bhdmatl 3. 4. 33 ( page 691 ) 
in the following connection : " 


&T TT**T ^iff^fcf" II The saying is quoted by Ananda- 
giri also, in his comment on the same portion of the bhashya. 
See, too, Veddntas'ikhdmani, p. 168. 

The simile of Sunda and Upasunda. Used of conflicting 
and mutually destructive things. It is thus explained by Raghu- 
nathavarma in his Laukikanyayasangraha :-"3MTM HI 3^131^. 

i *T*n tarssrt sfiinTu 

- r\ . ri 
< I "^ ffi 

The story of Sunda and Upasunda is told at great length in 
Adiparva ccix-ccxii, but is condensed into six verses in Ka- 
thdsaritsdgara xv., of which the following is Mr. Tawney's 
translation : "There were two brothers, Asuras by race, Sunda 
and Upasunda, hard to overcome, in as much as they surpassed 
the three worlds in valour. And Brahma, wishing to destroy 
them, gave an order to Vis'vakarman, and had constructed a 
heavenly woman named Tilottama, in order to behold whose 
beauty even S'iva truly became four- faced, so as to look four 
ways at once, while she was devoutly circumambulating him. 
She, by the order of Brahma, went to Sunda and Upasunda, while 
they were in the garden of Kailasa, in order to seduce them, 
And both those two Asuras distracted with love, seized the fair 
one at the same time by both her arms, the moment they saw 
her near them. And as they were dragging her off in mutual 
opposition, they soon came to blows, and both of them were 
destroyed." The simile is met with in Stlnkhyatattvakaumucfa 
13, as follows: "^ i^M<fa*iy*fl<*l 3&TT: ti 

See also 


klya Nitisdra, ix. 61. In Sarvarthasiddhi ( on Tattwmukta- 
l-alapa ii. 53) we have the expression "^ 

This nyaya is used, says Raghunfitha, when the things 
in opposition are of equal strength; but when they are of 
unequal strength, and the weaker go to the wall, the Matsya- 
nyaya is employed. 

. *-*-r '^jjfcjp^* 

The simile of SiibJwga and the mendicant. The following 
is Raghunatha's explanation of it: " 


* 1 ** 

This seems to 

me very unsatisfactory, but I can suggest nothing better. 
The only work in which I have met with the nyaya is the 
Atmatattvavivelca ( page 54 ), where it is wrongly printed as 
It would need a long extract to make it intelli- 

gible, so I must refer the reader to the work itself. 

The simile of the ascent of a staircase. Used of knowledge 
arrived at gradually, by easy steps. "Line upon line, precept 


upon precept, here a little and there a little." There is an 
instance of its use in Bkamati 1. 3. 8 ( page 201 ): " 

i II 

The illustration afforded by Saubhari. The story of this 
sage is told in Book 4, chapter 2, of the Vishnu Purana, and, 
with less detail, in Book 9, chapter 6, of the Bhagavata 
Purana. We there learn that, after remaining immersed in a 
piece of water for twelve years, the Muni was so much im- 
pressed by the happiness of the little fish which disported them- 
selves around their great progenitor named Sammada, that 
he determined to marry and raise up progeny himself! He 
accordingly went to king Mandhata, the father of fifty 
charming daughters, and asked for one of them in marriage. 
Taken somewhat aback by the appearance of this old and 
emaciated suitor, but fearing to displease him, the king replied 
that it was the custom for princesses to select their own husband, 
but that if any one of them chose him as such, he could take 
her to wife. He was accordingly conducted to the ladies' 
apartments; but, on the way there, he transformed his 
repelling person into one of handsome and youthful appearance, 
and the consequence was that each of the fifty maidens fell 
violently in love with him and demanded him as a husband, 
and so he married them all ! Each of them lived in a beautiful 
mansion by herself, surrounded by every luxury. After a 
time, the king went on a visit to them to see how they fared. 
The first one pointed to her lovely surroundings and told of her 
husband's goodness to her, but added that there was one thing 


which troubled her very much, namely, that her husband was 
always with her, and therefore her sisters could never enjoy 
his society at all. The king then visited each of the others in 
turn, and heard exactly the same thing from each ; and so the 
necessary inference is that the sage entered into fifty bodies at 
one and the same time, and this is the sole point of the nyaya ! 
It occurs in Bhamatl 4. 4. 11 as f ollows : 

Venkatanatha is the only other writer in whose works I have 
met with it. On page 65 of the Nydyasiddhanjana we read: 

II In his vritti on Tattvamuktakaldpa iii 22, where 
the same subject is discussed, we find the following: 

It occurs again in the text and comment of verse 31. 


The simile of the redness of the cry sled. Such redness is 
owing to the proximity of a red object, such as a rose &c. The 
illustration is much used by writers on Vedanta &c. For exam- 
ple, we read in Paramarthasara, verses 16 and 61: 

cTTT ^TRtf WT: II $1 l 

So, too, Aniruddha on SdnJchyasutra ii. 35: "q"TT 

i%^"ll See also At- 

mabodha, 14; and a verse, by some unknown author, quoted in 


the Panini section of Sarvadars'anasangraJta ( page 144 Bib. 
Ind., and 163 in Jivananda's edn. ). In the Kuvalaydnanda 
( page 289 ) under the figure s^f^i, we read: " 

|| See also Vivaranaprameya, page 214. 

Nature is hard to overcome. This is no doubt based on 
Hitopades'a iii. 56: 

Kaghunatha applies it in the following manner: " 

The expression occurs also in the following verse of the 
Kusumdnjali ( i. 7 ): 

The snake stupified ly its own poison bites its own body! 
This saying is found in Udayana's Atmatattiaviveka, page 67, 
line 6 : "*r!% f| * ^T %l%T^t 

T^^T^T: i ?T%C^ST ^IH^^I i 



The simile of the relation as master and servant. "It is 
used to mark the relation of the feeder and the fed, or the sup- 
porter and the supported, subsisting between any two objects." 
Apte's Sanskrit Dictionary. It is of very common occurrence. 
For instance, in S'ankara's bhashya on Brahmasutra 2. 1. 4 
in a discussion as to the relation between Brahma and the world, 
he says: "^% STR^" *JHM*l4N*U*?TT^t ^TW% I ^f 

Also in 2. 3. 43, we read: " 

See, too, Ramatirtha on Veddnta- 

sdra 19 ( page 141, last line ). 


The simile of an alligator in a lalce. Used of things which 
mutually aid or protect each other. See 


"There are few books which give the results of so much reading ia 
so small a compass as this little pamphlet of some fifty pages. As its 
name indicates, it is a collection of those popular maxims, or, as Dr. 
Buhler calls them, " inferences from familiar instances," which one 
hears so frequently in conversation with Pandits Similiar collec- 
tions have been frequently put together... but we very rarely find in 
these any reference to the use of nyayas in actual literature. The 
great value of Colonel Jacob's work is that at least one such reference 
is given for every maxim quoted. He has drawn principally from 
works on philosophy and on rhetoric, branches of Sanskrit literature 
which he has made peculiarly his own, and the modestly styled 
'Handful' is only one more example of the labourious care and love of 
accuracy for which its author is distinguished. 

The book is useful to other than Sanskrit scholars The 

student of Tulasr Dasa, or of Malik Muhmmad, will find many an. 
obscure passage illumined by this true dehall-dipaka, throwing light, 
as it does, both upon the past and on the present." 

Journal of Royal Asiatic Society ( July 1901). 

"Under the title 'Laukikanyayafijali,' or 'A handful of Popular 
Maxims', Colonel G. A. Jacob has published and explained a number 
of those allusions to popular and, at the time, no doubt, well-known 
proverbs or stories which abound in Sanskrit literature. These 
nyayas find their parallels from our own language in such common 
savings as 'like the pot and the kettle', 'like the hare and the tortoise' 
etc. The proverbs or stories to which they allude are perfectly well- 
known and need no explanation. In the case of their Sanskrit 

counterparts, the memory of their origin has not always been preserv- 
ed or has become obscured. The list now published consists of those 
examples which Colonel Jacob has been able either to trace to their 
source or to partly explain. Let us hope that this useful little work, 
the result of many years of reading may, in his own words, 'become 
the nucleus of a very much larger collection'." 

Luzac's Oriental List ( March-April 1901 ). 

"From what we have written above, we think our readers will see- 
what a useful little book Colonel Jacob's is, especially for those who- 
wish to address the people of this land in forms of speech and with 
thoughts that are familiar to them. 

Prakas'ak ( Kolhapur, March 1900 ). 

Printed by B. R. Ghanekar at " Xirnaya-<agar " Press, by the publisher- 


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